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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Letícia de Oliveira
Definition: Blockchain is a communication network where data is stored and shared in a distributed manner among all its nodes and links, eliminating any reliable authority centralized in different business models and where each node can assume coordination without a unified data center.Blockchain is a chain of blocks of information forming a distributed database where a group of people controls, records, and shares information used in various types of applications and is interconnected through platforms and hardware worldwide.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Fatima Dirani
Definition: Production activities in the oil and gas industry are capital intensive and associated with high technology, with these assets not always being available to oil-producing countries or national companies. Any form of interaction between the parties involved in natural resource extraction requires clear regulation regarding contractual relationships. This study attempts to analyze Indonesia’s production sharing contract system in order to assess its applicability to other conditions. The article covers the key aspects of contract theory, provides a classification of contractual systems in the oil and gas sector, and discusses the most common types of contractual agreements. It also considers the key principles of production sharing contracts (PSCs), analyzes the development of PSC practices in Indonesia over the past sixty years, and highlights PSC advantages and disadvantages.
Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Otilia Manta
Definition: Starting from the multiple challenges currently existing at the European level as well as from the general principles of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the following policy brief presents, from a Romanian perspective , different scenarios for the following Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), with particular attention to direct payments, using appropriate empirical and long-term research methods for the reform of the Cohesion Policy, namely the reform of the CAP. Given the timeliness of the topic, the paper has a strong analytical and pragmatic character, aiming at offering national decision-makers different positioning options in European negotiating formats. This paper aims to improve understanding of performance budgeting and the presentation of options for the future financial framework in the context of current challenges.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Astrida Miceikienė
Definition: Economic activity leads to an increase in the thermal pollution of the atmosphere. The increasing concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions enhances the natural greenhouse effect and determines the increase in global air temperature. The reduction of GHG emissions is one of the priorities of the EU countries. The majority of studies show that financial support and environmental taxes are one of the most effective measures for the mitigation of the negative consequences of climate change. The EU countries employ different environmental support measures and environmental taxes to reduce GHG emissions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Wagner Valenti
Definition: Lambari is a group of small native fish from Brazil common in natural freshwater. They have gained visibility and good acceptance in very profitable market niches, such as human food and live bait for sport fishing.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Giovanni Ventura
Definition: The production of high-quality olive oils implies the generation of vast quantities of solid residues and/or wastewaters that may have a great impact on terrestrial and aquatic environments because of their high phytotoxicity. Depending on the techniques used for olive oil production, namely, on the type of horizontal centrifugation (two-phase or three-phase), the process most adopted to separate olive oil from olive paste obtained after malaxation, different by-products are obtained.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Albert Fekete
Definition: Open space design, as an integral part of urban design, is the art of relationship.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Diwakar KC
Definition: Tunnel Technology is an infrastructure-based technology that facilitates crop production for an extended period. The technology protects the crop from climate change effects, prolongs production, and makes efficient use of resources.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Weicheng Cui
Definition: Underwater connectors are very essential and complex components of deep-sea engineering equipment and their design and manufacture have apparent multidisciplinary characteristics. Wet-mateable connectors (WMCs) represent the highest level of technology in this field, and only a very few countries in the world can produce WMCs. So, WMCs are likely to be a constraining factor to some maritime powers that might try to achieve breakthroughs in this field, constraining the innovation-driven development of deep-sea equipment.
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