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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Gösta Baganz
Definition: Aquaponics, the water-reusing production of fish and crops, is taken as an example to investigate the consequences of upscaling a nature-based solution in a circular city. We developed an upscaled-aquaponic scenario for the German metropolis of Berlin, analysed the impacts, and studied the system dynamics. To meet the annual fish, tomato, and lettuce demand of Berlin’s 3.77 million residents would require approximately 370 aquaponic facilities covering a total area of 224 hectares and the use of different combinations of fish and crops: catfish/tomato (56%), catfish/lettuce (13%), and tilapia/tomato (31%). As a predominant effect, in terms of water, aquaponic production would save about 2.0 million m3 of water compared to the baseline. On the supply-side, we identified significant causal link chains concerning the Food-Water-Energy nexus at the aquaponic facility level as well as causal relations of a production relocation to Berlin. On the demand-side, a ‘freshwater pescatarian diet’ is discussed. The new and comprehensive findings at different system levels require further investigations on this topic. Upscaled aquaponics can produce a relevant contribution to Berlin’s sustainability and to implement it, research is needed to find suitable sites for local aquaponics in Berlin, possibly inside buildings, on urban roofscape, or in peri-urban areas.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Jin-Wook PARK
Definition: Urbanization involves the profound alteration of original habitats and causes habitat loss and biodiversity decline. Urban areas and roads in land use mainly have a negative influence on ground beetles. Paddies, fields, parks and green spaces, and open space were positively correlated with species richness of forest species and large-sized species, and open space was positively correlated with species richness and the density of open land species. However, ground beetle communities in different areas of varying sizes did not group separately. These results suggest that changes in paddies, fields, parks and green spaces, forests, and open space associated with the expanding urban area and road greatly influenced species composition, and the community structure remained similar.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Bogusław Wowrzeczka
Definition: By 2050, the world population is expected to reach 9.7 billion, almost 90% of which will live in urban areas. With such a fast growth in population and urbanization, it is anticipated that the annual waste generation will increase by 70% in comparison with current levels, and will reach 3.40 billion tons in 2050. A key question regarding the sustainability of the planet is the effect of city size on waste production.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Roberto Falanga
Definition: Participatory budgets (PBs) allocate a share of the local public budget to citizen-led initiatives. While aiming to get the most marginalised groups of civil society closer to democratic institutions and representatives, the first PBs were celebrated by movements and parties on the left of the political spectrum for their capacity to foster social justice, transparency, and accountability. In the last few decades, PBs have been endorsed by international agencies and contributed significantly to the development of good governance mechanisms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Devindi Geekiyanage
Definition: Despite the fact that vulnerable communities are the most affected by unplanned cities, considerably less attention has been given to involving them in urban development in order to ensure equitable outcomes. In this regard, there is an urgent need for governments to introduce and enforce processes that allow citizens, including vulnerable communities, to participate in development planning and policymaking. However, at present, there is a lack of guidance for practitioners regarding the definition of a clear purpose of community engagement and the selection of appropriate participatory methods to fulfil the set purpose.This study provides a thorough account of theparticipatory methods that can be used to achieve various engagement goals throughout the urbandevelopment process. This structured literature review used 71 reports published from 2000 to 2020.The review revealed 34 participatory methods, wherein most of the methods are devoted to informing,consulting and involving communities, whilst only a few methods are available for interactive publicparticipation that supports true collaboration and empowerment. The study identified 12 purposesof community engagement in urban development, and mapped the 34 participatory methods forachieving them. The analysed case studies showed that the current community engagement practicesare mainly in the pre-design and briefing stages of the urban development processes, and that mostprojects are aiming to achieve the ‘inform’ and ‘consult’ levels of engagement, with a few aiming toachieve the ‘involve’ and ‘collaborate’ levels. This study shows that community engagement is oftenoverlooked during the professional design, development and post-development phases. The paperpresents an onion model which can be used by practitioners to choose appropriate participatorymethods based on the intended urban development phase, the engagement level and the purpose ofthe community engagement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Gabriella Vindigni
Definition: The phenomenon of urbanization affecting our era has seen the shift of the city from compact and well-defined structures to agglomerations with a seamless expansion. This has led to several environmental consequences that have affected the urbanized areas and the surroundings. The peri-urban areas may be the main urban design and planning challenge of the 21st century. These hybrid landscapes, characterized by high fragmentation, can be turned into opportunities to improve the sustainability and quality of urban areas, generating multiple economic, social and environmental benefits. Areas beyond the immediate urban core can be considered a zone of influence, which represent a critical resource in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting services and cultural ecosystem services.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Sung Su Jo
Definition: Smart city industries can be defined as construction businesses based on IT manufacturing (precision instruments, electrical and electronic equipment), IT services (communications and broadcasting) and knowledge services (six fields such as finance and insurance, real estate and lease, professional, scientific and technical services).
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Sunyoung Hlee
Definition: A smart tourism city is defined as an innovative and sustainable city that achieves economic and social values and enhances the city’s competitiveness by collecting, analyzing, visualizing, and modeling real-time big data generated throughout the city and sharing it with all stakeholders of the smart tourism ecosystem. By reviewing the estimation standards proposed by numerous organizations for assessing a smart tourism city, we can identify how a smart tourism city is perceived.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Philip Harrison
Definition: Sustainability concerns transgress jurisdictional boundaries compelling multi-scalar and inter-jurisdictional responses. The city-region is one of the scales at which governance actors may mobilise for sustainability and this is now recognised in literatures on integrated food systems, for example. However, within the mainstream debates on city-regions, sustainability as a motivation for inter-jurisdictional governance is still given scant attention. In practice also the connections between city-regionalism and sustainability are often limited and fractious. However, there are emergent practices which offer the potential for a stronger relationship, especially where there are growing pressures for addressing environmental threats and spillovers at the regional scale.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Mar 2021
Submitted by: John Rennie Short
Definition: Pandemics have shaped the way cities are planned and configured. Throughout history, cities have evolved to solve problems of sanitation, hygiene, and health access while providing space and opportunities for the urban dwellers.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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