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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Vyacheslav Klyukhin
Definition: Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector and the methodology of modelling the heterogeneous CMS magnetic system for describing the magnetic flux of the CMS superconducting solenoid enclosed in a steel flux-return yoke.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Definition: The cosmogenic activation of materials is the production of radioactive isotopes due to the exposure to cosmic rays. On the Earth's surface, spallation induced by cosmic neutrons is responsible of most of the activation, but other reactions and cosmic ray components must be considered too in other conditions, like if materials are flown at high altitudes or stored deep underground. Cosmogenic activation is relevant in different contexts; for example, together with primordial or anthropogenic radioactivity, it s a background source in experiments devoted to the investigation of rare event phenomena, like the direct detection of dark matter particles or the nuclear double beta decay.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 May 2021
Submitted by: Lee Hively
Definition: Recent tests measured an irrotational (curl-free) magnetic vector potential (A) that is contrary to classical electrodynamics (CED). A (irrotational) arises in extended electrodynamics (EED) that is derivable from the Stueckelberg Lagrangian. A (irrotational) implies an irrotational (gradient-driven) electrical current density, J. Consequently, EED is gauge-free and provably unique. EED predicts a scalar field that equals the quantity usually set to zero as the Lorenz gauge, making A and the scalar potential (F) independent and physically-measureable fields. EED predicts a scalar-longitudinal wave (SLW) that has an electric field along the direction of propagation together with the scalar field, carrying both energy and momentum. EED also predicts the scalar wave (SW) that carries energy without momentum.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Sang-Seok Nam
Definition: This study aimed to present a standard and normal distribution of Taekwondo athletes’ physical characteristics and physical fitness profiles using a systematic review. A systematic search was conducted using four Korean databases (Research Information Sharing Service, National Digital Science Library, DBpia, and Korean Studies Information Service System). From 2010 to 2020, we reviewed 838 papers on Taekwondo athletes’ physical characteristics and physical fitness factors (e.g., body composition, muscle strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, power, agility, balance, speed, and reaction time).
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Seiki Chiba
Definition: Power generation using dielectric elastomer (DE) artificial muscle is attracting attention because of its light weight, low cost, and high-efficiency. Since this method is a system that produces electricity without emitting carbon dioxide nor using rare earths, it would contribute to the goal of environmental sustainability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Alvaro Herraez
Definition: The Swampland Distance Conjecture (SDC) is one of the most studied and well-established Swampland Conjetures, and it introduces an omnipresent feature in effective field theories (EFTs) of quantum gravity, namely the appearance of infinite towers of states that become light an imply a breakdown of the EFT in the infinite distance limits in moduli space. In this entry we present the conjecture, a simple example and some comments on relations to other conjectures.
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