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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Shen Xueping
Definition: College students suffer from various difficulties due to their own and environmental reasons in the process of career decision-making, which may affect their individual psychological state and social functions over time. One of the main difficulties is career decision-making. Career decision-making difficulties refer to various difficulties or problems faced by individuals in the process of career decision-making, including lack of readiness (LR), lack of information (LI), and inconsistent information (II). College students have certain career decision-making difficulties due to the lack of occupational information and self-information. The career decision-making difficulties not only affect college students’ employment, but also affect their solutions to the problems in career development.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Daniela Sorea
Definition: The compossessorates in Transylvania (Romania) are traditional varieties of commons. The compossessorates are family associations that jointly own an idivisible piece of land. The rights of each family within the association are inherited and depend on the size of the contribution made by their predecessors to the establishment of the association. During the inter-war period two types of compossessorates were most common in Transylvania: those of the former boyars and the ones owned by the former serfs. An analysis of the 1904 Austro-Hungarian Regulation on the organization and management of the commons, of the 1910 Romanian Forest Code that was implemented in Transylvania after 1918, and of the by-laws of compossessorates, derived from the aforementioned documents, unveils the concern of both legislators and members of compossessorates for the preservation, balanced exploitation and regeneration of the forest fund and their focus on sustainable management of forests. The compossessorates were disbanded upon the instauration of the communist regime in Romania and re-established after 1989. Nowadays, compossessorates continue the local tradition of sustainably managing the forests and the pastures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Kyoo-Man Ha
Definition: The definition of disabilities varies widely, with different individuals and institutions having their own definitions. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): “There remains, however, the difficult question of how best to refer to individuals who experience some degree of functional limitation or restriction. ICF uses the term ‘disability’ to denote a multidimensional phenomenon resulting from the interaction between people and their physical and social environment. For a variety of reasons, when referring to individuals, some prefer to use the term ‘people with disabilities while others prefer ‘disabled people’”. The definition of disaster means “a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, or destruction”. In the present work, disasters include both natural disasters (also known as natural hazards) and human-made emergencies. Natural disasters are natural events created by the natural forces of the earth, including earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, wildfires, snowstorms, droughts, sinkholes, and climate change. Human-made emergencies are disastrous events caused by human actions, such as terrorist attacks, pandemic outbreaks, suicides, oil spills, nuclear leakages, and bomb explosions. Disaster management refers to government efforts to manage all kinds of hazards to ensure and protect the welfare of the people with the support of various partners, including voluntary organizations, businesses, and local communities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Federica Cucchiella
Definition: Shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources is a major global challenge, and in this context, the European Union has promoted sustainable and environmentally friendly growth as early as the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. To date, European institutions have promulgated a series of environmental regulations and directives aimed at promoting and imposing adoption by member states of internal regulations. This entry focused on Western Europe, and it explores, for each state under analysis, energy policies adopted, the results achieved and recommendations for the future growth of renewable energy. The results show that in countries where energy policy is not fragmented, the yield in renewable energies has been higher, and also in the states where more and various forms of subsidies are foreseen, growth seems to be greater.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Sylwia Łaba
Definition: Food losses and wastage are one of the most important problems of the modern world. The scale of this phenomenon is so large that it should be treated as a global problem. Food losses occur at every stage of the agri-food chain, from primary production (ag-riculture), through storage, processing, transport, distribution and consumption.
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Others
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Haoxuan Yu
Abstract: Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) is the Standard for choosing the reasonable road of industrial development for the Nation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: BEGOÑA PANEA
Definition: In Argentina, color and intramuscular fat are the main attributes of raw beef quality; however, it is necessary to clarify how consumers use them, in order to establish different marketing strategies. Consumer preferences are affected by multiple factors. Thus, the objective of the present study was to identify the Argentinian consumer’s choice behavior regarding beef color and fat content. An online survey was carried out in Argentina. It inquired about socio-demographic characteristics, purchase and consumption habits and beliefs, showing pictures related to color, marbling and the amount of fat. Choice behavior was evaluated by asking why consumers chose a particular picture out of the ones shown. Several Kruskal–Wallis tests evaluated the different hypotheses. Three different decision trees using the CHAID analysis method were created. Multifactorial analysis was carried out for clustering consumers. Regarding consumer beliefs, 90% of the respondents agreed with the sentence, “The two main characteristics defining beef quality at purchase time are meat color and marbling”. Socio-demographic characteristics affected purchase habits and beliefs; they also affected perceptions about meat color and marbling. It was possible to build three consumer groups for future marketing strategies: “hedonic” focused on a pleasing sensory experience, “appearance” prioritized the visual aspects, and the “health-conscious” consumers were interested in their healthy nutrition.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Definition: Physical activity (PA) refers to any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Participation in regular and adequate levels of PA is an essential contributor to good health, maintenance of healthy weight, and management of risk factors of chronic diseases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mathilda Björk
Definition: Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSP) (i.e., pain duration >3 months) such as chronic neck/shoulder and back pain or generalized widespread pain (including fibromyalgia (FM)) has a prevalence from 10.4% to 20% among adults.
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