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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF, also known as Bayesian Mindsponge analytical approach) is an analytical approach that employs the mindsponge information-processing mechanism and Bayesian analysis (e.g. bayesvl package) as each other’s complement to conduct cognitive and psychological research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Shen Xueping
Definition: College students suffer from various difficulties due to their own and environmental reasons in the process of career decision-making, which may affect their individual psychological state and social functions over time. One of the main difficulties is career decision-making. Career decision-making difficulties refer to various difficulties or problems faced by individuals in the process of career decision-making, including lack of readiness (LR), lack of information (LI), and inconsistent information (II). College students have certain career decision-making difficulties due to the lack of occupational information and self-information. The career decision-making difficulties not only affect college students’ employment, but also affect their solutions to the problems in career development.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Satu Kalliola
Definition: The current turbulent societies produce new society and organisation level challenges continuously. Communicative Spaces are concrete or virtual spaces where people conduct dialogues about significant large scope issues affecting their lives and make plans to overcome the constraints together. In the following definitions and practical applications are given.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Daniela Sorea
Definition: The compossessorates in Transylvania (Romania) are traditional varieties of commons. The compossessorates are family associations that jointly own an idivisible piece of land. The rights of each family within the association are inherited and depend on the size of the contribution made by their predecessors to the establishment of the association. During the inter-war period two types of compossessorates were most common in Transylvania: those of the former boyars and the ones owned by the former serfs. An analysis of the 1904 Austro-Hungarian Regulation on the organization and management of the commons, of the 1910 Romanian Forest Code that was implemented in Transylvania after 1918, and of the by-laws of compossessorates, derived from the aforementioned documents, unveils the concern of both legislators and members of compossessorates for the preservation, balanced exploitation and regeneration of the forest fund and their focus on sustainable management of forests. The compossessorates were disbanded upon the instauration of the communist regime in Romania and re-established after 1989. Nowadays, compossessorates continue the local tradition of sustainably managing the forests and the pastures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Aug 2021
Submitted by: WEI DE WU
Definition: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry is still sustained, and the response of the tourism industry is an indispensable element that is increasingly recognized. This response has led to the emergence of literature about the impact of COVID-19 on the stakeholders of the tourism industry, thereby contributing to the industry. Nonetheless, criterion factors and investigated practices on the implementation of decision-making by stakeholders in the tourism industry have not been fully explored. Practically, the irresistible risk industry is already synonymous with tourism. Indeed, it is an unstable industry. 2003, 2 million tourists reduce of SARS. 2009, Global Economic Crisis tourist 37 million reduce. 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic, the world's borders are blocked, all international travel is stopped, and the mobility of tourists is prohibited. However, effective decision-making is lacking, and few studies have determined the solutions in the tourism industry of stakeholder. How the tourism industry survives under the crisis context is an urgent issue.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Kyoo-Man Ha
Definition: The definition of disabilities varies widely, with different individuals and institutions having their own definitions. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): “There remains, however, the difficult question of how best to refer to individuals who experience some degree of functional limitation or restriction. ICF uses the term ‘disability’ to denote a multidimensional phenomenon resulting from the interaction between people and their physical and social environment. For a variety of reasons, when referring to individuals, some prefer to use the term ‘people with disabilities while others prefer ‘disabled people’”. The definition of disaster means “a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, or destruction”. In the present work, disasters include both natural disasters (also known as natural hazards) and human-made emergencies. Natural disasters are natural events created by the natural forces of the earth, including earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, floods, wildfires, snowstorms, droughts, sinkholes, and climate change. Human-made emergencies are disastrous events caused by human actions, such as terrorist attacks, pandemic outbreaks, suicides, oil spills, nuclear leakages, and bomb explosions. Disaster management refers to government efforts to manage all kinds of hazards to ensure and protect the welfare of the people with the support of various partners, including voluntary organizations, businesses, and local communities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2021
Submitted by: RECEP ULUCAK
Definition: The term “energy poverty” usually refers to the lack of affordability or of access to basic energy services to meet one’s most common needs, such as lighting, cooking, heating and cooling.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Federica Cucchiella
Definition: Shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources is a major global challenge, and in this context, the European Union has promoted sustainable and environmentally friendly growth as early as the Maastricht Treaty of 1992. To date, European institutions have promulgated a series of environmental regulations and directives aimed at promoting and imposing adoption by member states of internal regulations. This entry focused on Western Europe, and it explores, for each state under analysis, energy policies adopted, the results achieved and recommendations for the future growth of renewable energy. The results show that in countries where energy policy is not fragmented, the yield in renewable energies has been higher, and also in the states where more and various forms of subsidies are foreseen, growth seems to be greater.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Ricardo Sibrián
Definition: Food and nutrition insecurity means low resilience on food nutrition Security Indicators according to Resilience Index Measurement and Analysis (RIMA) outlined in FAO 2016.
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