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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Ricardo Correia
Definition: The genus Acacia belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae. It comprises a large group of more than 1350 species, widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate areas of the world. Most of the species are native to Australia but are spread all over the world because of their wide variety of uses and economic importance such as for ornamental purposes, for sand and dune stabilization, as a fuel through the production of woodfuel and charcoal, as an important source of fodder, tannins for the leather industry, gums, and essences for perfumes.
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Biography
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Adriano Sofo
Abstract: Adriano Sofo graduated with a Master Degree in Biological Sciences from the University of Bari, Italy, in 1997. He spent three years (1999-2002) at the University of Basilicata, Italy, with a Doctorate in Crop Productivity. From 2000 to 2001, he also was a Researcher at the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy. As Postdoctoral Training, in 2002, he worked at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Heraklion, Greece, within a Marie Curie Fellowship. In 2007, he graduated with a second Master Degree in Plant Biotechnology from the University of Basilicata. He then trained as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Basilicata, where he also worked as Assistant Professor in Agricultural Chemistry. In 2015, he was awarded a Fulbright Research Scholar grant to spend at the University of California, Davis. In 2017, he received a fellowship award from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. In 2019, he was a visiting professor at Kindai University, Nara, Japan, within a JSPS Research Scholar Grant. In 2020, he has benefited from a DAAD Research Stay at the University of Bremen, Germany. Currently, he is Associate Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Plant Biology at the University of Basilicata. His research fields are: a) biochemistry and physiology of plants under abiotic stress conditions; b) soil chemistry/microbiology and soil sustainable management; c) food quality and plant secondary metabolites. He is actively working on the following topics: a) response of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses; b) response of plants and fungi to soil pollutants; c) soil quality and fertility in sustainable agro-ecosystems; d) food quality and improvement of plant material. He is the author of over 150 papers published in peer-reviewed journals and books. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Plant Biology (PagePress) and Section Editor-in-Chief of Plants - Plant-Soil Interactions (MDPI). He is Associate Editor of Functional Plant Biology (CSIRO) and Soil Use and Management (Wiley), and member of the Editorial Board of Plant Signaling & Behavior (Taylor & Francis), Sustainability - Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife Section (MDPI), PeerJ - the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences - Section Plant Biology (PeerJ Inc.), and Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, Soil & Plant Science (Taylor & Francis). In 2020, he was listed among 2% of the most cited scientists in the world - year 2019 (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000918) and among the Top Italian Scientists, Natural & Environmental Sciences macroarea (http://www.topitalianscientists.org).
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Valentina Melini
Definition: Agri-Food Waste (AFW) originates throughout the whole food supply chain, from production to post-harvesting, industrial processing, distribution, domestic processing, and consumption, with wastage volumes differing among phases and food commodities. Conventional management of food waste encompasses production of renewable energy, animal feeds, and compost. Alternative pathways include the valorization of food waste as a source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, to be used as functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals. Drying and size reduction techniques, extraction methods, and fermentation are the main strategies to turn AFW into functional ingredients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marco Nuti
Definition: Knowledge of the agricultural soil microbiota, of the microbial consortia that comprise it, and the promotion of agricultural practices that maintain and encourage them, is a promising way to improve soil quality for sustainable agriculture and to provide food security. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of beneficial soil microorganisms on crop yields and quality, the use of microbial consortia in agriculture remains low. Microbial consortia have more properties than an individual microbial inoculum, due to the synergy of the microorganisms that populate them.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Paramesh Venkatesh
Definition: Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) are essential plant nutrients and their deficiency in soils and antagonistic effect of P on Zn are the important concerns world-over. Thus, a two-year (2012-13 to 2013-14) experimentation was carried out to assess grain yield, nutrient uptake and quality parameters of wheat by various levels of P and Zn. The results revealed that 50% Recommended Dose of P (RDP) through phospho-enriched compost (PEC) + 50% RDP through fertiliser and soil application of 12.5 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha-1 + one foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4.7H2O recorded significantly higher grain yield (4.81 and 4.61 t ha-1, respectively), straw yield (7.20 and 6.92 t ha-1, respectively) and protein content (11.5% and 11.3%, respectively). The concentrations of Zn in grain (35.6%) and straw (57.3%) was not affected due to organic P application but 100% P through P fertilizer reduced the Zn content in the grains. Both soil and foliar application of Zn was found more promising in increasing Zn and Fe concentration in grains (37.5 and 30.9 mg kg-1, respectively) and straw (60.3 and 398 mg kg-1, respectively). Overall, the treatment combination of 50% RDP through PEC + 50% RDP through fertiliser and soil applied 12.5 kg ZnSO4.7H2O ha-1 + one spray of 0.5% Zn was beneficial in reducing antagonistic effect of P on Zn and increasing Zn and Fe concentration in wheat grain and, thus, could be used for improving the yield of Zn and Fe enriched wheat grains.
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Biography
Updated time: 24 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Anet Režek Jambrak
Abstract: Anet Režek Jambrak is a Professor at the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology of the University of Zagreb. She has been serving as a scientific advisor in food engineering (biotechnical sciences) since 2018. From 2019, she is the head of Laboratory for sustainable development. She was trained at Coventry University, UK and at the University of Avignon, France. Her field of research is food chemistry, food physics, nonthermal processing, advanced thermal processing, sustainability, food processing, Industry 4.0, digitalization etc. Since 2007, Anet Režek Jambrak has published over 100 significant scientific papers with citation more than 2250, (h-index 25) and is an author of book chapters in recognized scientific publishers like Wiley, Elsevier, Springer etc. She received several prizes and awards; in 2019 she received the title of Highly Cited Researcher, among 0.1% world scientists, and a national award for Science, Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Science and Education, Government of the Republic of Croatia; in 2016 she was awarded Young Scientist Award and in 2011 Award to young scientist “Vera Johanides”, Academy of Technical Sciences of Croatia. In 2010, World renowned Journal of Food Engineering Elsevier: Journal of Food Engineering, recognized her for highest cited papers. She is a member of Global Young Academy (GYA) and International Academy of Food Science and Technology.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Cristiano Azevedo
Definition: Animal personality can be defined as behavioral and physiological differences between individuals of the same species, which are stable in time and across different contexts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Juan Ruiz Lozano
Definition: Despite an intensive research in the field of aquaporins, the relationship between aquaporins and plant responses to water deficit remains still unresolved. However, several authors have recognized the importance of aquaporins for both nutrient and water exchanges during mycorrhizal symbiosis. We have conducted investigations showing that the AM symbiosis regulates the expression of a wide number of aquaporin genes in maize, including members of the different aquaporin subfamilies. Several of these AM-regulated aquaporins where functionally characterized in heterologous systems with Xenopus laevis oocytes and by yeast complementation. It was shown that they can transport water, but also other molecules of physiological importance for plant performance under both normal and stress conditions (glycerol, urea, ammonia, boric acid, silicon or hydrogen peroxide). AM plants grew and developed better than non-AM plants under the different conditions assayed. Thus, the investigation suggests that the well-known better performance of AM plants under drought stress may be due not only to the improved water movement in their tissues, but also to the mobilization of compounds with a role in abiotic stress tolerance such as glycerol, N compounds, signalling molecules or metalloids.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Marcelo Wilson
Definition: Argiudolls are a Great group of Mollisols, which are key components in the provision of ecosystem services associated with global food production. These soils act as support for different anthropic activities and are involved in the regulation of water quality and quantity, nutrient recycling, carbon reserve and maintenance of biodiversity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Gniewko Niedbała
Definition: In the course of evolution plant organisms have developed several mechanisms preventing or repairing cell damage incurred as a result of exposure to various factors. In response to increasing threats plants have developed antioxidative defense mechanisms: enzymatic and non-enzymatic. The enzymatic mechanism is based on antioxidative enzymes, while the non-enzymatic system is based on low-molecular antioxidants: ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, carotenoids, phenolic compounds. A significant abiotic stressor inseparably connected with the potential development of fungal diseases Ear Fusarium is caused by strains of F.graminearum and F.culmorum, which can produce mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). The aim of the study was to conduct pilot studies on the basis of which neural models were created that would examine the impact of the variety and weather conditions on the concentration of ferulic acid and link its content with the concentration of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. The plant material was 23 winter wheat genotypes with different Fusarium resistance. Field experiment was conducted in 2011-2013 in Poland in three experimental combinations: with full chemical protection, without chemical protection, but infested with natural disease (control), and in the absence of fungicidal protection, with artificial inoculation by genus Fusarium fungi. As a result of the pilot studies, three neural models FERUANN, DONANN and NIVANN were produced. Each model was based on 14 independent features, 12 independent features of which were in the form of quantitative data, and the other 2 were presented as qualitative data. The structure of created models was based on an artificial neural network (ANN) of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) with two hidden layers. The sensitivity analysis of the neural network showed the two most important features determining the concentration of ferulic acid, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in winter wheat seeds. These are the experiment variant (VAR) and winter wheat variety (VOW).
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