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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Ricardo Correia
Definition: The genus Acacia belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae. It comprises a large group of more than 1350 species, widely distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate areas of the world. Most of the species are native to Australia but are spread all over the world because of their wide variety of uses and economic importance such as for ornamental purposes, for sand and dune stabilization, as a fuel through the production of woodfuel and charcoal, as an important source of fodder, tannins for the leather industry, gums, and essences for perfumes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Hany Elsheikha
Definition: When presented with an animal exhibiting signs of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), such as impaired vision, mucoid discharges, redness, swelling, and corneal oedema, most veterinarians would think of bacteria, viruses, or fungi as the potential causative agent(s). Evidence has arisen in recent years of a possible connection between the protozoan Acanthamoeba and keratitis in animals. Acanthamoeba infection is underdiagnosed, but potentially common, in animals.
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Biography
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Adriano Sofo
Abstract: Adriano Sofo graduated with a Master Degree in Biological Sciences from the University of Bari, Italy, in 1997. He spent three years (1999-2002) at the University of Basilicata, Italy, with a Doctorate in Crop Production. From 2000 to 2001, he also was a Researcher at the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy. As Postdoctoral Training, in 2002, he worked at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Heraklion, Greece, within a Marie Curie Fellowship. In 2007, he graduated with a second Master Degree in Plant Biotechnology from the University of Basilicata. He then trained as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Basilicata, where he also worked as Assistant Professor in Agricultural Chemistry. In 2015, he was awarded a Fulbright Research Scholar grant to spend at the University of California, Davis. In 2017, he received a fellowship award from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. In 2019, he was a visiting professor at Kindai University, Nara, Japan, within a JSPS Research Scholar Grant. In 2021, he has benefited from a DAAD Research Stay at the University of Bremen, Germany. Currently, he is Associate Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Plant Biology at the University of Basilicata. His research fields are: a) physiological and biochemical response of plants to stresses; b) soil chemistry/microbiology and soil sustainable management; c) food quality and plant secondary metabolites. He is actively working on the following topics: a) response of plants to abiotic and biotic stresses; b) response of plants and fungi to soil pollutants; c) soil quality and fertility in sustainable agro-ecosystems; d) food quality and improvement of plant material. He is the author of over 150 papers published in peer-reviewed journals and books. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Plant Biology (PagePress) and Section Editor-in-Chief of Plants - Plant-Soil Interactions (MDPI). He is Associate Editor of Functional Plant Biology (CSIRO) and Soil Use and Management (Wiley), and member of the Editorial Board of Plant Signaling & Behavior (Taylor & Francis), Sustainability - Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife Section (MDPI), Soil Systems (MDPI), PeerJ - the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences - Section Plant Biology (PeerJ Inc.), and Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, Soil & Plant Science (Taylor & Francis). In 2020, he was listed among 2% of the most cited scientists in the world - year 2019 (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000918) and among the Top Italian Scientists, Natural & Environmental Sciences macroarea (http://www.topitalianscientists.org).
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Aug 2021
Submitted by: SERGEY SUDAKOV
Definition: Rats are considered adults from 2 to 5 months. During this period, they are used for experimentation in physiology and pharmacology. Adult rats, depending on their age, can be in a different physiological state, which can influence the results of experiments carried out on them. Despite this, age-related changes in adult rats have not yet been examined. Our results showed that as male and female rats progressed from 2 to 5 months of age there was a decrease in the level of motor and exploratory activities, and an increase in the level of anxiety-like behaviour. Age-related changes were dependent upon initial individual characteristics of behaviour. For example, animals that demonstrated high motor activity at 2 months become significantly less active by 5 months, and animals that showed a low level of anxiety at 2 months become more anxious by 5 months. Low-activity and high-anxiety rats did not show any significant age-related changes from 2 to 5 months of age.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Ram Ray
Definition: The agricultural industry is getting more data-centric and requires precise, more advanced data and technologies than before, despite being familiar with agricultural processes. The agriculture industry is being advanced in generating database by various information and advanced communication technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT).
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Oct 2021
Submitted by: FIREW Tafesse
Definition: Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites that represent serious threats to human and animal health. They are mainly produced by strains of the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus, which are abundantly distributed across agricultural commodities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Sep 2021
Submitted by: George Wanjala
Definition: The African continent is home to more than 400 million heads of sheep, the majority of which are classified as indigenous and raised primarily for subsistence. They live and thrive well in a wide range of climatic and production conditions, ranging from unfavorable to favorable environments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Vítor Martinho
Definition: The agri-food frameworks have specific characteristics (production units with small dimensions and in great number with implications in the respective markets) that call for adjusted approaches, even more so when they are considered in Mediterranean contexts (where global warming will have relevant impacts). In fact, the Mediterranean regions and countries have particular specificities (due to their climate conditions) that distinguish them from their neighbours. This is particularly true in Europe, for example, where the southern countries present socioeconomic dynamics (associated with the respective public debt) that are different from those identified in the northern regions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Valentina Melini
Definition: Agri-Food Waste (AFW) originates throughout the whole food supply chain, from production to post-harvesting, industrial processing, distribution, domestic processing, and consumption, with wastage volumes differing among phases and food commodities. Conventional management of food waste encompasses production of renewable energy, animal feeds, and compost. Alternative pathways include the valorization of food waste as a source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, to be used as functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals. Drying and size reduction techniques, extraction methods, and fermentation are the main strategies to turn AFW into functional ingredients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Definition: Agricultural expansion refers to the conversion of uncultivated land, including natural forests, woodlands, grasslands and wetlands into crop or grazing land, and may be undertaken by smallholders or largescale farmers.
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