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Gluten is the nitrogen storage protein matrix found in wheat and cereals belonging to the Triticeae tribe, and it is composed of two proteins: gliadin and glutenin.
Submitted by: Helder Fraga
The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an ancient traditional crop in the Mediterranean Basin. In the Mediterranean region, traditional olive orchards are distinguishable by their prevailing climatic conditions. Olive trees are indeed considered one of the most suitable and best-adapted species to the Mediterranean-type climate. However, new challenges are predicted to arise from climate change, threatening this traditional crop. The Mediterranean Basin is considered a climate change “hotspot,” as future projections hint at considerable warming and drying trends. Changes in olive tree suitability have already been reported over the last few decades. In this context, climate change may become particularly challenging for olive growers.
Submitted by: R Sayyed
Biofertilizers are emerging as a suitable alternative to counteract the adverse environmental impacts exerted by synthetic agrochemicals. Biofertilizers facilitate the overall growth and yield of crops in an eco-friendly manner.
Submitted by: Limei Yang
Brassica oleracea L. is an important vegetable, fodder, and ornamental diploid (2n = 18) species which belongs to the genus Brassica and mustard family Brassicaceae Burnett. B. oleracea probably originates from the Western Mediterranean region, Great Britain and Northern-Central China.
Submitted by: ZHAO rongkun
Paddy rice is a staple food of three billion people in the world. Timely and accurate estimation of the paddy rice planting area and paddy rice yield can provide valuable information for the gov-ernment, planners and decision makers to formulate policies.
Submitted by: Aswathi Soni
Plasma-activated water (PAW) is generated by treating water with cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) using controllable parameters such as plasma-forming voltage, carrier gas, temperature, pulses, or frequency as required. PAW is reported to have lower pH, higher conductivity, and higher oxidation-reduction potential when compared with untreated water due to the presence of reactive species. PAW has received significant attention from researchers over the last decade due to its non-thermal and non-toxic mode of action, especially for bacterial inactivation. This review summarizes the properties of PAW, the effect of various treatment parameters on its efficiency in bacterial inactivation along with its usage as a standalone technology as well as a hurdle approach with mild thermal treatments.
Submitted by: Juan Mejuto
Essential oil is a term reserved for those compounds that are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in their ISO 9235. These kinds of compounds are complex mixtures originated from the secondary metabolism, produced by the glandular trichomes, and in different secretory structures. They can be composed by terpenes, associated or not to other components, generally volatile and that provides an odor to the vegetable. These compounds have (with exceptions) a density lower than water density and are usually presented in liquid form. Besides, essential oils are hydrophobic compounds, soluble in alcohol (among others) and only a little soluble in water.
Cucurbit viruses cause considerable economic losses worldwide. The most common viral diseases affecting this crop family are Potyviruses, Cucumoviruses, Criniviruses, Ipomoviruses, Tobamoviruses, and the emerging Begomoviruses. Four main cucurbit crops are grown worldwide, namely melon, cucumber (Cucumis), watermelon (Citrullus), and squash (Cucurbita). Huge natural variation is also available within each genus, providing valuable sources of genetic resistance to these diseases. Intraspecific and intrageneric diversity and crossability are key factors to select the optimum breeding strategies. Melon and cucumber are diverse species for which intraspecific resistance is available. Conversely, in Citrullus and Cucurbita, wild relatives provide the resistance diversity absent in watermelon and in C. pepo. Some of the classical sources used by breeders, many of which are multi-resistant, come from corresponding origin centers in Asia, Africa, and America, as well as from secondary centers of diversity. Genetic studies have identified dominant and recessive and often complex resistance. Many of the genes identified have been mapped and markers for MAS are available, but higher mapping resolutions are required to identify the corresponding genes. Only a few genes could be cloned and functionally characterized. Efforts are underway to use genome mapping and functional genomics to advance toward a genomic-assisted breeding against viral diseases in cucurbits.
Submitted by: Vincent Niderkorn
Plant bioactive compounds (PBC) are widespread in the plant kingdom, including in forage species, but their impact on silage fermentation and ruminant use of PBC-containing silage has been under-researched. 
Submitted by: Susheel Verma
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (Orchidaceae) is a perennial herb inhabiting sub-alpine to alpine regions, ranging at elevations between 2500 and 5000 m.a.s.l. With palmately lobed rhizome and lanceolate leaves having a sheathing leaf base, it bears pink flowers with purple-colored notches and a curved spur.
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