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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Zygmunt Kruczek
Definition: Entry includes definition of overtourism phenomenon around the world with following literature references both historical and current research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Chia-Fa Chi
Definition: Maladaptation is caused by adaptation that fails to reduce vulnerability or inadvertently increases it. Maladaptation can be defined as: ''maladaptation occurs when short-term strategies increase vulnerability in the long term'' or ''action taken ostensibly to avoid or reduce vulnerability to climate change that impacts adversely on, or increase the vulnerability of other systems, sectors, or social groups.''
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: The comprehensive research framework is divided into two phases, namely assessment and abatement, each of which involves a method that has been developed on the basis of an analytical framework. The vehicle emission estimation method, in the assessment phase, is built on the basis of the ‘Institution of Sustainability’ (IoS) framework to assess vehicle emission levels and identify all potential traffic-related sources influencing such emissions. Field experiments are designed, in the abatement phase, on the basis of the ‘Institutions and Development’ (IAD) framework to analyse the ‘near-to-real’ commuter interdependence, with respect to demand-based, non-technical measures in the experiment arrangement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Timothy Adams
Definition: The World Bank and other international donor communities have often supported decentralization of natural resource management (NRM) based on the assumption that it would bring governance down to local level actors and generate a range of positive outcomes, including ecological sustainability and poverty reduction. Ghana makes an interesting case study to critically analyze the intertwined relationship among decentralization policy, mining title formalization, and CRAFT because of the prominent role that they play in current NRM practices. Like many Sub-Saharan African countries, the exploitation of gold ore in Ghana is shaped by three main sources of formal rules, including public policies, mining concession, and customary law. Customary law governs surface land rights while statutory laws and regulations govern subterranean mineral resources, leading to a situation where gold ore mining is the result of the interactions of customary law and government laws and regulations. This affects the governance and coordination of mineral wealth exploitation, which can positively or negatively affect resource sustainability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Iffath Syed
Definition: Feminist political economy is a concept from feminist material scholarship. Itconnects market relations with domestic relations. It examines the roles of women, tensions related to women’s paid and unpaid work, how production and reproduction issues affect women, and the interactions at the micro, meso, and macro level contexts within women's lives.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Dauro Mattia Zocchi
Definition: The entry explores the concept of food heritage, focusing mainly on the anthropological, geographical, and sociological debate. Although the review identifies some conceptualisations that frame heritage in the food and gastronomic domains, it also shows the high degree of fragmentation of the debate. In so doing, it sheds light on how the concept of food heritage from a theoretical point of view is still in progress.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Haimeng Liu
Definition: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provided brand new goals and action targets for human well-being and development, but the COVID-19 pandemic has cast a shadow on the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is therefore essential to provide a reference for making policy adjustments and transformations to promote the realization of SDGs in the post-pandemic era. Based on a literature review of the progress and policies of SDGs across countries worldwide, we find that research on sustainable policies has rapidly increased since the SDGs issued in 2015 with particular focuses on eco-environment, sustainable policies, green economy, sanitation and health, and water sanitation. Most countries are in the process of nationalization, institutionalization, and universalization of the SDGs through incorporating the SDGs into national development frameworks, enabling extensive participation and negotiation mechanisms, and promoting the SDGs’ national publicity. Countries of different economic and institutional backgrounds demonstrate divergent development pathways, priorities, measures, and progress in the implementation of SDGs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Josephine Head
Definition: Healthy soils are vital for sustainable development, yet consistent soil monitoring is scarce, and soils are poorly represented in United Nations Sustainable Development Goals targets and indicators. There is a clear need for specific ambitions on soil health, accompanying metrics, and cost-effective monitoring methodologies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Anshu Zhang
Definition: Human mobility, the movement of human beings in space and time, reflects the spatial-temporal characteristics of human behavior. With big data analytics, human mobility research can be used to facilitate smart city development, in multiple disciplines such as smart traffic, smart urban planning, smart health, smart safety, smart commerce, etc. A framework for linking international academic research and city-level management policy was established and applied to the case of Hong Kong. Literatures regarding human mobility research using big data are reviewed. These studies contribute to (1) discovering the spatial-temporal phenomenon, (2) identifying the difference in human behaviour or spatial attributes, (3) explaining the dynamic of mobility, and (4) applying to city management. Then, the application of the research to smart city development are scrutinised based on email queries to various governmental departments in Hong Kong. With further improvement in the practical value of data analytics and the utilization of data sourced from multiple sectors, paths to achieve smarter cities from policymaking perspectives are highlighted.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Yao Wang
Definition: Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter.This work provides aintroductionof LiDAR technology and the LAI estimation with LiDAR, LAI validation studies, and factors affecting the LAI estimation.
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