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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Luca Quartuccio
Definition: Antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation of the vascular wall. The pathogenesis of AAV is strongly associated with B cell-derived ANCAs; thus, Rituximab (RTX) has become a promising drug in the induction and maintenance treatment of AAV.
Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Nikunj Satani
Definition: Ischemic stroke is a debilitating disease and one of the leading causes of long-term disability. During the early phase after ischemic stroke, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits increased permeability and disruption, leading to an influx of immune cells and inflammatory molecules that exacerbate the damage to the brain tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells have been investigated as a promising therapy to improve the recovery after ischemic stroke. The therapeutic effects imparted by MSCs are mostly paracrine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Sep 2021
Definition: The Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide. The advent of vaccines has permitted some restitution. Aside from the respiratory complications of the infection, there is also a thrombotic risk attributed to both the disease and the vaccine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Fengkai Li
Definition: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) refer to a subpopulation of tumor cells that have abilities to self-renew, differentiate, and seed new tumors, they might be taking part in tumor-associated angiogenesis via trans-differentiation or forming the capillary-like vascular mimicry (VM) in the tumor microenvironment. CSC-associated tumor neovascularization partially contributes to the failure of cancer treatment. The study of CSCs transdifferentiating to endothelial cells or pericytes can provide a new insight in the understanding of tumor progression and relapse.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Vera Dugina
Definition: The primary function of the endothelial cells (EC) lining the inner surface of all vessels is to regulate permeability of vascular walls and to control exchange between circulating blood and tissue fluids of organs. The EC actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Actin cytoskeleton reorganization result in EC contraction and provides a structural basis for the increase in vascular permeability, which is typical for many diseases. Actin cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells presented two actin isoforms: non-muscle β-cytoplasmic and γ-cytoplasmic actins (β-actins and γ-actins), which are encoded by ACTB and ACTG1 genes, respectively. They are ubiquitously expressed in the different cells in vivo and in vitro and the β/γ-actin ratio depends on the cell type. Both cytoplasmic actins are essential for cell survival, but they perform various functions in the interphase and cell division and play different roles in neoplastic transformation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Camelia Diaconu
Definition: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disease that can progress from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. From the histopathological point of view, it is characterized by excess storage of macrovesicular fat in hepatocytes. These macrovesicular storages are composed of triglycerides that accumulate in the liver. The process can lead in some individuals to an inflammatory response, which is responsible for steatohepatitis, that leads to fibrosis and, finally, cirrhosis.NAFLD has a growing prevalence in recent years. Its association with cardiovascular disease has been intensively studied, and certain correlations have been identified. The connection between these two entities has lately aroused interest regarding therapeutic management.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Rafael Linhares
Definition: Anemia is a common condition in preoperative period of peripheral arterial disease patients. Anemia has multifactorial causes, including: iron deficiency; vitamin deficiency and inflammation; and chronic kidney disease.Some retrospective researches demonstrated, that preprocedural anemia is a predictor adverse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for vascular disease treatment. These outcomes are increase likelihood of: A) transfusion; B) amputation; C) and major adverse cardiovascular events.It is not clear if preoperative anemia optimization with iron and/or erythropoietin, reduce major adverse outcomes in patients submitted to vascular peripheral surgeries.
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