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Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Definition: CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy; OMIM#125310) is a systemic arteriopathy of non-atherosclerotic and non-amyloid cause. It is a rare disease affecting fewer than 2/1000 individuals, caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. It has autosomal dominant inheritance, although it can also occur due to de novo mutations.
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Definition: The 1q21.1 CNVs, rare and large chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions, are detected in many patients with NDs. Phenotypes of duplication and deletion appear at the two ends of the spectrum. Microdeletions are predominant in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and microcephaly, whereas microduplications are predominant in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and macrocephaly.
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Definition: The activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), a double-edged sword, sex-dependently regulates multiple genes and was previously associated with the control of early muscle development and aging.
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Definition: Biomarkers are molecules that are variable in their origin, nature, and mechanism of action; they are of great relevance in biology and also in medicine because of their specific connection with a single or several diseases. Biomarkers are of two types, which in some cases are operative with each other. Fluid biomarkers, started around 2000, are generated in fluid from specific proteins/peptides and miRNAs accumulated within two extracellular fluids, either the central spinal fluid or blood plasma. The switch of these proteins/peptides and miRNAs, from free to segregated within extracellular vesicles, has induced certain advantages including higher levels within fluids and lower operative expenses. Imaging biomarkers, started around 2004, are identified in vivo upon their binding by radiolabeled molecules subsequently revealed in the brain by positron emission tomography and/or other imaging techniques. A positive point for the latter approach is the quantitation of results, but expenses are much higher.
Updated time: 13 Sep 2021
Definition: Adaptive behaviour is defined as “the effectiveness with which the individual copes with the natural and social demands of his environment”. Such skills in daily functioning are essential for personal and social autonomy and are particularly crucial for individuals with intellectual disabilities, (ID) when cognitive testing is difficult, allowing us to evaluate their mastery of the daily environment.
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Definition: Newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are regulated by many intrinsic and extrinsic cues. It is well accepted that elevated glucocorticoid levels lead to downregulation of adult neurogenesis, which this review discusses as one reason why psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, develop after long-term stress exposure. In reverse, adult neurogenesis has been suggested to protect against stress-induced major depression, and hence, could serve as a resilience mechanism.
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Definition: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition that usually has its onset in childhood. Although the disorder persists into adulthood in half of cases, adult ADHD is often not recognized due to different psychopathological characteristics, quite often overlapping with other diagnoses such as mood, anxiety and personality disorders. This is especially true for bipolar disorder (BD), which shares several symptoms with adult ADHD. Moreover, besides an overlapping clinical presentation, BD is often co-occurring in adults with ADHD, with comorbidity figures as high as 20%.
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Abstract: Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) has strong connection with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is considered the most common disorder of synucleinopathy, which is characterised by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-syn protein in various brain regions, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons. During the early prodromal phase of PD, synaptic alterations happen before cell death, which is linked to the synaptic accumulation of toxic α-syn specifically in the presynaptic terminals, affecting neurotransmitter release. The oligomers and protofibrils of α-syn are the most toxic species, and their overexpression impairs the distribution and activation of synaptic proteins, such as the SNARE complex, preventing neurotransmitter exocytosis and neuronal synaptic communication. In the last few years, the role of the immune system in PD has been increasingly considered. Microglial and astrocyte activation, the gene expression of proinflammatory factors, and the infiltration of immune cells from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) represent the main features of the inflammatory response. One of the actors of these processes is α-syn accumulation.
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Definition: Accumulation of the neuronal presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein within proteinaceous inclusions represents the key histophathological hallmark of a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders, referred to by the umbrella term a-synucleinopathies. Even though alpha-synuclein is expressed predominantly in neurons, pathological aggregates of the protein are also found in the glial cells of the brain. In Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, alpha-synuclein accumulates mainly in neurons forming the Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, whereas in multiple system atrophy, the protein aggregates mostly in the glial cytoplasmic inclusions within oligodendrocytes. In addition, astrogliosis and microgliosis are found in the synucleinopathy brains, whereas both astrocytes and microglia internalize alpha-synuclein and contribute to the spread of pathology. The mechanisms underlying the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein in glial cells that under physiological conditions express low to non-detectable levels of the protein are an area of intense research. Undoubtedly, the presence of aggregated alpha-synuclein can disrupt glial function in general and can contribute to neurodegeneration through numerous pathways.
Updated time: 12 Oct 2021
Definition: The site of origin of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although unsettled, is increasingly recognized as being cortico-fugal, which is a dying-forward process primarily starting in the corticomotoneuronal system.