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Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Ziyi Luo
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial, irreversible, and incurable neurodegenerative disease. The main pathological feature of AD is the deposition of misfolded β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plaques in the brain. The abnormal accumulation of Aβ plaques leads to the loss of some neuron functions, further causing the neuron entanglement and the corresponding functional damage, which has a great impact on memory and cognitive functions. The imaging techniques for the clinical AD diagnosis currently mainly include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and so on. Compared with clinical imaging modalities, optical imaging possesses many advantages (e.g., noninvasiveness, high sensitivity, low cost, high imaging speed, and the ability to carry out three-dimensional imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution), allowing for the detection of biological processes at the cellular or molecular level.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Liang WU
Definition: The precise segmentation of brain tumor images is a vital step towards accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of brain tumors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can generate brain images without tissue damage or skull artifacts, providing important discriminant information for clinicians in the study of brain tumors and other brain diseases. Segmentation methods of brain tumor MR image are mainly divided into three categories according to different segmentation principles: traditional segmentation methods, traditional machine learning-based segmentation methods and deep learning-based segmentation methods.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Meng-Han Tsai
Definition: Hippocampal malrotation (HIMAL) is an increasingly recognized neuroimaging feature but the clinical correlation and significance in epilepsies remain under debate.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Raffaella Nenna
Definition: Lung ultrasound has become increasingly used in both adult and pediatric populations, allowing the rapid evaluation of many lung and pleura diseases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Camilla Russo
Definition: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), the most frequent phakomatosis and one of the most common inherited tumor predisposition syndromes, is characterized by several manifestations that pervasively involve central and peripheral nervous system structures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Bram Callewaert
Definition: Alterations to the cerebral microcirculation have been recognized to play a crucial role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the exact role of the microvascular alterations in the pathophysiological mechanisms often remains poorly understood. The early detection of changes in microcirculation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be used to get a better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. This could be an important step towards the development of new treatment approaches. Animal models allow for the study of the disease mechanism at several stages of development, before the onset of clinical symptoms, and the verification with invasive imaging techniques. Specifically, pre-clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the development and validation of MRI sequences under clinically relevant conditions. This article reviews MRI strategies providing indirect non-invasive measurements of microvascular changes in the rodent brain that can be used for early detection and characterization of neurodegenerative disorders. The perfusion MRI techniques: Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE), Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Enhanced (DSC) and Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), will be discussed, followed by less established imaging strategies used to analyze the cerebral microcirculation: Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM), Vascular Space Occupancy (VASO), Steady-State Susceptibility Contrast (SSC), Vessel size imaging, SAGE-based DSC, Phase Contrast Flow (PC) Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and quantitative Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (qBOLD). We will emphasize the advantages and limitations of each strategy, in particular on applications for high-field MRI in the rodent’s brain.
Entry Collection : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jul 2021
Definition: Los fisioterapeutas utilizan la ecografía de rehabilitación (RUSI) como una herramienta de retroalimentación para medir los cambios en la morfología muscular durante intervenciones terapéuticas como los ejercicios de control motor (MCE). Sin embargo, falta una descripción estructurada de su eficacia.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marc van Zandvoort
Definition: Two-photon imaging (2PI) is a fluorescence-based laser scanning microscopy technique commonly used in studies across various fields of research, including neurobiology, embryology, and tissue engineering. In principle, it involves two infrared photons simultaneously exciting a single fluorophore in a sample, thereby causing it to emit light in a specific wavelength region, also called fluorescence emission spectrum. This fluorescence is normally detected in a wavelength region close to the maximum of this spectrum, allowing the sample to be identified based on its specific fluorescent characteristics.
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