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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Brandon Nokes
Definition: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is a multi-step process with a high risk for complications during marrow ablation, during engraftment, or afterwards. Successful transplantation depends on the selection of the hematopoietic stem cell source, host preparation (conditioning regimen), and modulation of immune cell engraftment to minimize graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Andrea Schlegel
Definition: Hypothermic Oxygenated Perfusion (HOPE) is a new liver preservation technique used in clinical trials. It may mitigate ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve organ function and patient outcomes.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: In liver transplant patients, solid tumors and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) have emerged as significant long-term mortality causes. Additionally, it is assumed that de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) is the second-leading cause of death after cardiovascular complications. Well-established risk factors for PTLD and solid tumors are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), tacrolimus (TAC), and cyclosporine, the cornerstones of all immunosuppressive (IS) therapies used after LT.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Jean Kwun
Definition: Following organ transplantation, sensitized patients have higher rates of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) compared to those who are non-sensitized. More stringent donor matching is required for these patients. Current approaches for sensitized patients focus on reducing preformed antibodies that preclude transplantation; however, this type of desensitization does not modulate the primed immune response in sensitized patients. Thus, an optimized maintenance immunosuppressive regimen is necessary for highly sensitized patients, which may be distinct from non-sensitized patients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Mari Dezawa
Definition: Muse cells, identified as pluripotent surface marker, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3(+), are endogenous reparative pluripotent stem cells distributed in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and connective tissue of every organ. Since they are non-tumorigenic and do not require gene introduction or cytokine treatment to be rendered pluripotent and induce differentiation, they elicit few safety concerns. They can be delivered intravenously and do not require surgery for their administration since they selectively home to damaged site by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-S1PR2 axis after intravenous injection. Donor-Muse cells can be used without HLA-matching test or immunosuppressant treatment since they have a specific immunomodulatory system represented by HLA-G expression.
Entry Collection : Neurodegeneration
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Scott Nyberg
Definition: More than half a century ago, Billingham and Medawar described the phenomenon of acquired immunologic tolerance to transplant antigens by successfully grafting the skin of a calf onto its fraternal twin. Induction of immune tolerance decreases the risk of graft rejection after solid organ transplantation and thus reduces the need for immunosuppression and improves the survival of transplanted organs. Billingham’s work was followed by the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, and so launched the worldwide search for methods to induce immune tolerance and to hold graft rejection at bay. Transplant tolerance represents the holy grail for transplant immunology: a state where the allograft is accepted by the recipient in the absence of IS treatment. There are multiple types of tolerance including full immunological tolerance, operational tolerance (OT), or IS minimization, sometimes referred to as “prope tolerance”.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Susan L Lindsay
Definition: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) for transplant-mediated repair represents an important and promising therapeutic strategy after spinal cord injury (SCI). MSCs can be harvested from a wide range of human tissues, however it is likely certain niches are more suited for SCI repair due to their intrinsic capabilities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Definition: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable in kidney transplantation and negatively impacts graft and patient outcome. Reperfusion takes place in the recipient and most of the injury following ischemia and reperfusion occurs during this reperfusion phase; therefore, the intra-operative period seems an attractive window of opportunity to modulate IRI and improve short- and potentially long-term graft outcome. Commonly used volatile anesthetics such as sevoflurane and isoflurane have been shown to interfere with many of the pathophysiological processes involved in the injurious cascade of IRI.
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