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Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Definition: PET (positron emission tomography) is a noninvasive functional imaging technique based on the detection of photons resulting from the annihilation of positrons emitted by a radioactive substance known as radiotracer or radiopharmaceutical. PET equipments usually incorporate a computed tomography scanner (PET/CT) in order to obtain hybrid functional-anatomical images. Different radiotracers are used to study different physiologic processes, such as blood flow, bone turnover or expression of certain cell receptors. The most common radiotracer used in clinical practice is 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (2-[18F]FDG), a glucose analogue binded to a radioactive isotope of fluor that informs about glucose metabolism in the body. As cancer cells have high energy requirements (and, therefore, high glucose consumption), this radiotracer is mostly used to evaluate oncologic processes (disease extension, response to treatment, etc.). However, some types of cancer have low 2-[18F]FDG uptake (e.g., well-differentiated or slow-growing neoplasms), and others can have a variable uptake due to the action of certain enzymes in the metabolic route of glucose (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma).
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Definition: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to diagnose diseases due to its high spatial, temporal and soft tissue resolution. Environment-responsive or smart MRI nanoprobes can specifically target cells based on differences in the cellular environment and improve the contrast between diseased tissues and normal tissues.
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Definition: Radiomics, via the extraction of quantitative information from conventional radiologic images, can identify imperceptible imaging biomarkers that can advance the characterization of coronary plaques and the surrounding adipose tissue. Such an approach can unravel the underlying pathophysiology of atherosclerosis which has the potential to aid diagnostic, prognostic and, therapeutic decision making. Several studies have demonstrated that radiomic analysis can characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaques with a level of accuracy comparable, if not superior, to current conventional qualitative and quantitative image analysis. While there are many milestones still to be reached before radiomics can be integrated into current clinical practice, such techniques hold great promise for improving the imaging phenotyping of coronary artery disease.
Entry Collection : Atherosclerosis and Atherosclerotic Diseases
Updated time: 31 May 2021
Definition: Combinations of radionuclide therapy (RT) and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) with other therapies with distinct mechanisms of action represent a promising strategy. As for prostate cancer and breast cancer, the two most prevalent cancer types worldwide, several combination-based therapies have been evaluated.
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Definition: Among all non-invasive diagnostic methods employed in the work-up of patients with chronic coronary syndromes (CCS), coronary computer tomography angiography (CCTA) stands out as an excellent integrative tool that provides information regarding calcium burden, presence and degree of coronary stenosis, type of atherosclerotic plaques, and functional relevance of such plaques, all in one examination.
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Definition: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) provides a means of mapping inflammatory changes to both epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) as independent markers of coronary risk.
Entry Collection : Atherosclerosis and Atherosclerotic Diseases
Updated time: 03 Jun 2021
Definition: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy with a high incidence rate in females.
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Definition: FLASH radiotherapy, or the administration of ultra-high dose rate radiotherapy, is a new radiation delivery method that aims to widen the therapeutic window in radiotherapy through better sparing of the normal tissue.
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Definition: Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies, which may be related to different causes. A low percentage of these lung diseases may be secondary to the administration of drugs or substances. Several different high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) patterns related to pulmonary drug toxicity have been reported in literature, and the most frequent ILDs patterns reported include Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP), Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP), Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP), Organizing Pneumonia (OP), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD).
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Definition: Standard radiological imaging is generally used for the diagnosis of fracture or pseudo-fractures, vascular calcifications and other features of CKD-MBD. However, bone fractures can also be diagnosed using computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Fracture risk can be predicted by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QTC) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQTC), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and most recently magnetic resonance micro-imaging.