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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Md. Jamal Hossain
Definition: Several FDA-approved available antiviral drugs, alone or in combination, have been screened clinically for their extended use since the early phase of the current pandemic to find a safe and effective treatment option against COVID-19, and many clinical trials of these antiviral drugs are still ongoing. However, an in-depth understanding is required from current clinical literature reports to execute integrated approaches between computational and experimental methods to guarantee high success rates of repositioned drugs. Moreover, multiple challenges associated with repurposed drugs have been identified, including dose adjustments, route of administration, acute/chronic toxicity, appropriate delivery systems, etc..
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Sveva Di Franco
Definition: Blood Stream Infections (BSIs) are defined by positive blood culture or cultures (with an isolate of the same species grown in at least one blood culture bottle) in a patient with systemic signs of infection (i.e., a patient who has evidence of one or more of the symptoms or signs, which are fever (body temperature > 38 °C), hypothermia (body temperature < 36 °C), chills, hypotension, oliguria, or high lactate levels).
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Gennaro Martucci
Definition: Heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality worldwide. Advancement of mechanical circulatory support technology has led to the use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), reducing hospitalizations, and improving quality of life and outcomes in advanced HF. Recent studies have highlighted how metabolic and endocrine dysfunction may be a consequence of, or associated with, HF, and may represent a novel (still neglected) therapeutic target in the treatment of HF. On the other hand, it is not clear whether LVAD support, may impact the outcome by also improving organ perfusion as well as improving the neuro-hormonal state of the patients, reducing the endocrine dysfunction. Moreover, endocrine function is likely a major determinant of human homeostasis, and is a key issue in the recovery from critical illness. Care of the endocrine function may contribute to improving cardiac contractility, immune function, as well as infection control, and rehabilitation during and after a LVAD placement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Zsolt Molnar
Definition: Cytokine removal can attenuate dysregulated immune response caused vasoplegia, leading to quicker hemodynamic stabilization and shock reversal. The most frequently used criteria to define shock reversal include normalization of serum lactate (<2.2 mmol/L) coupled with a significant (≥90%) reduction in norepinephrine dose requirements. The current paper has summarized the available data, which indicate the important contribution of early hemoadsorption in achieving rapid hemodynamic stabilization in patients with refractory vasoplegic shock.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Christoph Hirche
Definition: Microsurgical free flap reconstruction in acute burn care offers the option of reconstructing even challenging defects in a single stage procedure. Due to altered rheological and hemodynamic conditions in severely burned patients, it bears the risk of a higher complication rate compared to microsurgical reconstruction in other patients. To avoid failure, appropriate indications for free flap reconstruction should be reviewed thoroughly. Several aspects concerning timing of the procedure, individual flap choice, selection and preparation of the recipient vessels, and perioperative measures must be considered.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jul 2021
Definition: HDL are the first defensive barrier against the burden of high LDL cholesterol levels owing to their contribution to reverse cholesterol transport as well as their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, among others.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Oct 2021
Definition: Anemia, iron deficiency and other hematinic deficiencies are a major cause of perioperative transfusion needs and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Anemia can be caused either by decreased production of hemoglobin or red blood cells or by increased consumption and blood loss. Decreased production can involve anything from erythropoietin or vitamin B12 insufficiency to absolute or functional lack of iron.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Rui Vitorino
Definition: Microfluidics is the advanced microtechnology of fluid manipulation in channels with at least one dimension in the range of 1–100 microns. Microfluidic technology offers a growing number of tools for manipulating small volumes of fluid to control chemical, biological, and physical processes relevant to separation, analysis, and detection.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Mahanazuddin Syed
Definition: Modern Intensive Care Units (ICUs) provide continuous monitoring of critically ill patients susceptible to many complications affecting morbidity and mortality. ICU settings require a high staff-to-patient ratio and generates a sheer volume of data. For clinicians, the real-time interpretation of data and decision-making is a challenging task. Machine Learning (ML) techniques in ICUs are making headway in the early detection of high-risk events due to increased processing power and freely available datasets such as the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC). We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the effectiveness of applying ML in the ICU settings using the MIMIC dataset. A total of 322 articles were reviewed and a quantitative descriptive analysis was performed on 61 qualified articles that applied ML techniques in ICU settings using MIMIC data. We assembled the qualified articles to provide insights into the areas of application, clinical variables used, and treatment outcomes that can pave the way for further adoption of this promising technology and possible use in routine clinical decision-making.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Daniela Pasero
Definition: It is known that bacterial infections represent a common complication during viral respiratory tract infections such as influenza, with a concomitant increase in morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and secondary infections in critically ill patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not well understood yet. We performed a review of the literature currently available to examine the incidence of bacterial secondary infections acquired during hospital stay and the risk factors associated with multidrug resistance.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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