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Updated time: 11 Oct 2021
Definition: The techniques currently used in 3D-assisted acetabular fracture surgery are 3D printing and visual surgical planning, 3D printing and pre-contouring of implants, and custom-made patient-specific implants. Three-dimensional-assisted surgery compared to conventional surgery reduces operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy usage, and complication rate. Evidence for the improvement of postoperative fracture reduction and physical functioning is limited, because of heterogeneity and varying qualities of the studies.
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Definition: Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Definition: Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two of the most common eye diseases of aging. This entry addresses the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations in managing cataract in patients with age-related macular degeneration.
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Definition: Pneumonectomy is an entire lung removal and is indicated for both malignant and benign diseases.
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Definition: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), first described in 1863 by Sir James Paget, is the most common focal entrapment mononeuropathy. It is defined as a compression of the median nerve at the wrist associated with decreased function of the nerve at this level. There are several risk factors of CTS including genetic heredity, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Definition: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is considered superior to endoscopic mucosal resection as an endoscopic resection because of its higher en bloc resection rate, but it is more difficult to perform. As ESD techniques have become more common, and the range of treatment by ESD has expanded, the number of possible complications has also increased, and endoscopists need to manage them.
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Definition: BIA-ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma, CD30 positive, ALK-negative usually discovered after the diagnosis of spontaneous periprosthetic seroma or intracapsular mass around the breast implant.
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Definition: Limb lengthening for achondroplasia is controversial. Modern techniques of limb lengthening, using distraction osteogenesis, have been able to add significant length to the lower and upper limbs of children and adults with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The long-term results of these treatments have remained unknown.
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
Definition: Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.
Updated time: 26 Sep 2021
Definition: Helices are the most common secondary structural elements in many functional proteins and have attracted much interest when examining the formation kinetics from a coil structure. Measurements describing the timescale to a helix from a coiled structure have been substantially improved with the availability of spectrophotometers with a dramatically improved time resolution. Early studies showed that helix–coil transitions occur in the 100-nanosecond range with a model helix near room temperature.