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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Hemal Mehta
Definition: Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two of the most common eye diseases of aging. This entry addresses the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations in managing cataract in patients with age-related macular degeneration.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ronny Priefer
Definition: Pneumonectomy is an entire lung removal and is indicated for both malignant and benign diseases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Artur Pasternak
Definition: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), first described in 1863 by Sir James Paget, is the most common focal entrapment mononeuropathy. It is defined as a compression of the median nerve at the wrist associated with decreased function of the nerve at this level. There are several risk factors of CTS including genetic heredity, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Yoshitsugu Misumi
Definition: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is considered superior to endoscopic mucosal resection as an endoscopic resection because of its higher en bloc resection rate, but it is more difficult to perform. As ESD techniques have become more common, and the range of treatment by ESD has expanded, the number of possible complications has also increased, and endoscopists need to manage them.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Roberto Cuomo
Definition: BIA-ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma, CD30 positive, ALK-negative usually discovered after the diagnosis of spontaneous periprosthetic seroma or intracapsular mass around the breast implant.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Dror Paley
Definition: Limb lengthening for achondroplasia is controversial. Modern techniques of limb lengthening, using distraction osteogenesis, have been able to add significant length to the lower and upper limbs of children and adults with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The long-term results of these treatments have remained unknown.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Feng Ren
Definition: Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Alberto Fogagnolo
Definition: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is still necessary in many surgical procedures; nonetheless, intraoperative MV is not free from harmful effects. Protective ventilation strategies, which include the combination of low tidal volume and adequate positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels, are usually adopted to minimize the ventilation-induced lung injury and to avoid post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs). Even so, volutrauma and atelectrauma may co-exist at different levels of tidal volume and PEEP, and therefore, the physiological response to the MV settings should be monitored in each patient.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 May 2021
Submitted by: Fulvio Nisi
Definition: Major high-risk surgery (HRS) exposes patients to potential perioperative adverse events. Hepatic resection of colorectal metastases can surely be included into the HRS class of operations. Limiting such risks is the main target of the perioperative medicine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Pietro Bertoglio
Definition: Mesothelioma is an aggressive disease arising from parietal pleura. Surgery is a valuable option in the frame of a multimodality treatment. Several surgical approaches have been standardized with the aim of a macroscopic complete resection; these often require homolateral diaphragm and pericardial resection and reconstruction. Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and extended pleurectomy decortication (EPD) have been recognized as radical surgical procedures. Nevertheless, both operations are technically challenging and associated with a significant rate of peri-operative morbidity and non-negligible mortality. The diaphragmatic and pericardial reconstruction technique is mandatory to avoid respiratory impairment and to reduce post-operative complications like gastric and cardiac herniation. Moreover, in the case of localized chest wall recurrence, surgery might be considered a valuable therapeutical option for highly selected and fit patients. All the technical aspects of the resection and reconstruction of the diaphragm, pericardium, and chest wall are described as well as the possible use of new minimally invasive techniques. In addition, the choice of different prosthetic materials, considering the most recent innovations in the field, are discussed.
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