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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Malin Åkerfelt
Definition: The current statistics on cancer show that 90% of all human cancers originate from epithelial cells. Breast and prostate cancer are examples of common tumors of epithelial origin that would benefit from improved drug treatment strategies. About 90% of preclinically approved drugs fail in clinical trials, partially due to the use of too simplified in vitro models and a lack of mimicking the tumor microenvironment in drug efficacy testing. This entry focuses on the epithelial cancers, followed by experimental models designed to recapitulate the epithelial tumor structure and microenvironment. A specific focus is to put on novel technologies for cell culture of spheroids, organoids, and 3D-printed tissue-like models, utilizing biomaterials of natural or synthetic origins, and how the models could be utilized for nanotechnology-based drug delivery in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
Definition: Creating an effective multiple-phase reporting method to lower medication errors can act to identify the baseline rates of prescription errors. Hence, this can enable a recognition of the major types of medication errors and thereby assist in risk-reduction through the application of various preventive measures. A successful strategy to prevent and detect drug-related problems may involve three stages: pre-intervention phase, intervention phase, and post-intervention phase.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Xin Yu Liew
Definition: A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) expert system is a powerful tool to efficiently assist a pathologist in achieving an early diagnosis of breast cancer. This process identifies the presence of cancer in breast tissue samples and the distinct type of cancer stages. In a standard CAD system, the main process involves image pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, classification, and performance evaluation. Breast cancer can be distinguished as benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous/metastatic) tumours. Benign tissue refers to changes in normal tissue of breast parenchyma, which does not relate to the development of malignancy . Contrarily, malignant tissue can be categorised into two types: in-situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Denise Rhoney
Definition: Feedback is an effective pedagogy aimed to create cognitive dissonance and reinforce learning as a key component of clinical training programs. Pharmacy learners receive constant feedback. However, there is limited understanding of how feedback is utilized in pharmacy education.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Dominique Lunter
Definition: Film-forming formulations represent a novel form of sustained release dermatic products. They are applied to the skin as a liquid or semi-solid preparation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Nooshin Peyman
Definition: Health literacy (HL) is a key element of health promotion that has been increasingly investigated since the 1990s. This term was first published in 1974 at the health education conference, which discussed the determinants of social health that affect mass communication, the health-care system, and health education issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) may contribute to lower respiratory airways’ inflammation. T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and related cytokines are also involved in the immunological mechanism of AR along with the classical Th2 cells. It is hypothesized that upon Th2 pressure, the inflammatory response in the lungs may lead to Th17-induced neutrophilic inflammation. However, the findings for interleukin-17 (IL-17) are bidirectional. Furthermore, the role of Th17 cells and their counterpart—T regulatory cells—remains unclear in AR patients. It was also shown that a regulator of inflammation might be the individual circulating specific non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), which were distinctively expressed in AR and bronchial asthma (BA) patients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ali Irfan
Definition: The 1,2,3-thiadiazole moiety occupies a significant and prominent position among privileged heterocyclic templates in the field of medicine, pharmacology and pharmaceutics due to its broad spectrum of biological activities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Sep 2021
Definition: The natural language processing (NLP) technology can serve as an interaction between computers and humans using linguistic analysis and deep learning methods to obtain knowledge from an unstructured free text. The NLP systems have shown their uniqueness and importance in the areas of information retrieval mostly in the retrieval and processing of large amount of unstructured clinical records and return structured information by user-defined queries. In general, the NLP system is aimed at representing explicitly the knowledge that is expressed by the text written in a natural language.
Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Indira Samarawickrema
Definition: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Despite the availability of a wide range of anticoagulants to help prevent thrombosis, thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients is a challenge due to its associated risk of haemorrhage. As a result, anticoagulation is only recommended in patients with a relatively high risk of VTE. Efforts have been made to develop predictive models for VTE risk assessment in cancer patients, but the availability of a reliable predictive model for ambulate patients with lung cancer is unclear.
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