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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Teow Phua
Definition: The etiology and pathophysiology genesis mechanisms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer have not yet been fully elucidated. Men’s age is clearly the strongest risk factor. Due to its nature, prostate cancer is considered a heterogeneous disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Giuseppe Sangiorgi
Definition: Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the inability to attain or maintain penile erection sufficient for successful sexual intercourse. ED carries a notable influence on life quality, with significant implications for family and social relationships. Because atherosclerosis of penile arteries represents one of the most frequent ED causes, patients presenting with it should always be investigated for potential coexistent coronary or peripheral disease. Up to 75% of ED patients have a stenosis of the iliac-pudendal-penile arteries, supplying the male genital organ’s perfusion. Recently, pathophysiology and molecular basis of male erection have been elucidated, giving the ground to pharmacological and mechanical revascularization treatment of this condition.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Peter Massányi
Definition: Male gonads and gametes are especially vulnerable to the effect of exogenous factors; therefore, they are considered a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. The impact of xenobiotics or radiation leads to an irreversible impairment of fertility displayed by histological changes, modulated androgen production, or compromised spermatozoa (or germ cells) quality.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Kaan Aydos
Definition: Retrieving spermatozoa from the testicles has been a great hope for patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), but relevant methods have not yet been developed to the level necessary to provide resolutions for all cases of NOA. Although performing testicular sperm extraction under microscopic magnification has increased sperm retrieval rates, in vitro selection and processing of quality sperm plays an essential role in the success of in vitro fertilization. Moreover, sperm cryopreservation is widely used in assisted reproductive technologies, whether for therapeutic purposes or for future fertility preservation. In recent years, there have been new developments using advanced technologies to freeze and preserve even very small numbers of sperm for which conventional techniques are inadequate.
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