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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Nicolás Loyacono
Definition: The rationale of an Advanced Integrative Model and an Advanced Integrative Approach is presented. In the context of Allopathic Medicine, this model introduces the evaluation, clinical exploration, diagnosis, and treatment of concomitant medical problems to the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Jadwiga Mosiołek
Definition: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent mental illness and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite a range of effective treatments, more than 30% of patients do not achieve remission as a result of conventional therapy. In these circumstances the identification of novel drug targets and pathogenic factors becomes essential for selecting more efficacious and personalized treatment. Increasing evidence has implicated the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of depression, revealing potential new pathways and treatment options. Moreover, convergent evidence indicates that MDD is related to disturbed neurogenesis and suggests a possible role of neurotrophic factors in recovery of function in patients. Although the influence of antidepressants on inflammatory cytokines balance was widely reported in various studies, the exact correlation between drugs used and specific cytokines and neurotrophins serum levels often remains inconsistent. Available data suggest anti-inflammatory properties of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), selective serotonin and noradrenaline inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) as a possible additional mechanism of reduction of depressive symptoms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: E A Cocodia
Definition: This is a comparative study that explores Indigenous communities, rural poverty, and mental health and well-being in Australia and Canada. It draws upona person-centred approach as described by Carl Rogers' humanistic psychology framework. Hence, the role of women within these communities and their strength in support of the well-being of their families is also examined. Themes that emerge within a humanistic theoretical framework will be highlighted. Examination of current data is provided and existing research findings are compared where relevant to indigenous populations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: The mindsponge mechanism (mindsponge framework, mindsponge concept, or mindsponge process) provides a way to explain how and why an individual observes and ejects cultural values conditional on the external setting. The term “mindsponge” derives from the metaphor that the mind is analogized to a sponge that squeezes out unsuitable values and absorbs new ones compatible with its core value. Thanks to the complexity and well-structuring, the mechanism has been used to develop various concepts in multiple disciplines. One such concept is "cultural additivity" (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-018-0189-2).
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Keith Puffer
Definition: Within the context of career counseling, clients often regard negatives feelings toward vocational options as inconsequential. Regrettably, by doing so, they discount the significance of the affect and overlook an important source of information. In the following study, Puffer and Pence investigated college students' negative emotional reactions to self- or computer reported occupations and the rationales for the selection of the negative affect. Their findings reveal how negative emotionality can be adaptive and feasibly assist career decision-makers.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Paola Rocca
Definition: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a major psychiatric disorder. It is characterized by the disruption of various mental processes, including the perception of reality, emotions and cognition. Cognitive impairment, especially social cognition (SC), is gaining attention and is considered by some psychiatrists as the core feature of SZ. Cognition has two branches: neurocognition (NC) and SC. NC includes mental abilities such as working memory, learning and memory, attention, processing speed, reasoning and problem solving. SC refers broadly to the high mental processes involved with perception, storage and the use of social information that helps everyone to make sense of themselves and others. Increasing evidence highlights that SC is also a direct predictor of functional outcomes, particularly of community and social functioning such as to fulfil basic social roles and being involved in social relationships. NC and SC are interlinked. Indeed, SC may act as a mediator between basic neurocognition and daily life functioning.
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