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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Jose Garcia Rodriguez
Definition: Dementia is a syndrome that is characterised by the decline of different cognitive abilities. A high rate of deaths and high cost for detection, treatments, and patients care count amongst its consequences. Although there is no cure for dementia, a timely diagnosis helps in obtaining necessary support, appropriate medication, and maintenance, as far as possible, of engagement in intellectual, social, and physical activities. The early detection of Alzheimer Disease (AD) is considered to be of high importance for improving the quality of life of patients and their families. In particular, Virtual Reality (VR) is an expanding tool that can be used in order to assess cognitive abilities while navigating through a Virtual Environment (VE).
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Drug cue reactivity is a type of learned response which is observed in individuals with drug addiction and involves significant physiological and subjective reactions to presentations of drug-related stimuli.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Javier Marín-Morales
Definition: Emotions play a critical role in our daily lives, so the understanding and recognition of emotional responses is crucial for human research. Affective computing research has mostly used non-immersive two-dimensional (2D) images or videos to elicit emotional states. However, immersive virtual reality, which allows researchers to simulate environments in controlled laboratory conditions with high levels of sense of presence and interactivity, is becoming more popular in emotion research. Moreover, its synergy with implicit measurements and machine-learning techniques has the potential to impact transversely in many research areas, opening new opportunities for the scientific community. This paper presents a systematic review of the emotion recognition research undertaken with physiological and behavioural measures using head-mounted displays as elicitation devices. The results highlight the evolution of the field, give a clear perspective using aggregated analysis, reveal the current open issues and provide guidelines for future research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2020
Submitted by: gil suzin
Definition: The aim of this entry was to investigate whether oxygen is a rate limiting factor for any of the main cognitive domains in healthy young individuals. Subjects were randomly assigned to either increased oxygen supply using hyperbaric oxygen (two atmospheres of 100% oxygen) or to a “sham” treatment (simulation of increased pressure in the chamber breathing normal air). While in the chamber, participants went through a battery of tests evaluating the major cognitive domains including information processing speed, episodic memory, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and attention. The results demonstrated that from all evaluated cognitive domains, a statistically significant improvement was found in the episodic memory of the hyper-oxygenized group. The hyper-oxygenized group demonstrated a better learning curve and a higher resilience to interference. The results of this study indicate that memory function is a continuum that does not reach its maximal ceiling effect at the normal sea level environment even in healthy young individuals. Understanding the biological limitation of our cognitive functions is important for future development of interventional tools that can be used in the daily clinical practice.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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