Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 01 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Valentina Alfonsi
Definition: At this stage of adolescence, several environmental and biological factors may affect both circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep. A large part of this population does not experience adequate sleep, leading to chronic sleep restriction and/or disrupted sleep-wake cycles.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Mojgan Gitimoghaddam
Definition: This entry aimed to undertake an extensive exploration of the extent, range, and nature of research activities regarding the effect and emerging evidence in the field of physical activity interventions on cognitive development among children and youth (0–17.99 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), and to help identify key gaps in research and determine precise research questions for future investigations. To carry out this scoping review, five electronic databases were searched. A total of 12,097 articles were retrieved via search efforts with an additional 93 articles identified from the identified review papers. Sixty articles were eligible for inclusion. The results of this scoping review revealed many positive key cognitive outcomes related to physicalactivity including, but not limited to: focus, attention, self-control, cognitive process, and alertness. No studies reported a negative association between physical activity and cognitive outcomes. Based on the findings from this scoping review, physical activity appears to have a favorable impact on the cognitive outcomes of children and youth with NDD.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: George F. Michel
Definition: Handedness is described as an aspect of hemispheric specialization of function. This entry shows how hand-use, skill, and preference measures are more appropriate for examining the relation of handedness to other forms of hemispheric specialization of function (speech control, praxis, motor control mechanisms, sensorimotor foundations of cognition).
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 08 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Mihye Choi
Definition: Speech is an acoustically variable signal, and one of the sources of this variation is the presence of multiple speakers. Empirical evidence has suggested that adult listeners possess remarkably sensitive (and systematic) abilities to process speech signals despite speaker variability. It includes not only a sensitivity to speaker-specific variation but also an ability to utilize speaker variation with other sources of information for further processing. In the present paper, we review evidence for speaker variability and speech processing in adults, and speaker variability and speech processing in young children, with an emphasis on how they make use of speaker-specific information in word learning situations. Finally, we will build on these findings to make a novel proposal for the use of speaker-specific information processing in phoneme learning in infancy.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Virginia Aguayo
Definition: “Support needs” is a psychological construct referring to the pattern and intensity of supports necessary for a person to participate in activities linked with normative human functioning.
Unfold