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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Soo Fun Tan
Definition: The inherent complexities of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architecture make its security and privacy issues becoming critically challenging. Numerous surveys have been published to review IoT security issues and challenges. The studies gave a general overview of IIoT security threats or a detailed analysis that explicitly focuses on specific technologies. However, recent studies fail to analyze the gap between security requirements of these technologies and their deployed countermeasure in the industry recently. Whether recent industry countermeasure is still adequate to address the security challenges of IIoT environment are questionable.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Vadim Bolshev
Definition: Blockchain has emerged as a transformational technology with the ability to disrupt and evolve multiple domains. As a decentralized, immutable distributed ledger, Blockchain technology is one of the most recent entrants to the comprehensive ideology of Smart Cities. The rise of urbanization and increased citizen participation have led to various technology integrations in present-day cities. E-governance in smart cities is a type of governance that aims to make effective use of information and communication technology (ICT) to improve services provided by the government to people and will increase participation in decision-making and policy formulation. This will improve governance and advance the digital transformation of government.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Definition: Cloud Computing is a well-established paradigm for building service-centric systems. However, ultra-low latency, high bandwidth, security, and real-time analytics are limitations in Cloud Computing when analysing and providing results for a large amount of data. Fog and Edge Computing offer solutions to the limitations of Cloud Computing. The number of agricultural domain applications that use the combination of Cloud, Fog, and Edge is increasing in the last few decades.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Kais Belwafi
Definition: We attempt to summarize the last two decades of embedded Brain-Computer Interface mostly because of the electroencephalography influence on these systems. Numerous noninvasive EBCIs have been developed, described, and tested. Noninvasive nature of the EEG-based BCIs made them the most popular BCI systems.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Ajani Taiwo
Definition: Embedded machine learning (EML) can be applied in the areas of accurate computer vision schemes, reliable speech recognition, innovative healthcare, robotics, and more. However, there exists a critical drawback in the efficient implementation of ML algorithms targeting embedded applications.Machine learning algorithms are generally computationally and memory intensive, making them unsuitable for resource-constrained environments such as embedded and mobile devices. In order to efficiently implement these compute and memory-intensive algorithms within the embedded and mobile computing space, innovative optimization techniques are required at the algorithm and hardware levels.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mário Véstias
Definition: Decimal operations are executed with slow software-based decimal arithmetic functions. For the fast execution of decimal operations, dedicated hardware units have been proposed and designed in FPGA. Decimal addition and multiplication is found in most decimal-based applications and so its design is very important for fast execution. This entry describes recent solutions for decimal multiplication and addition in FPGA.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Nov 2021
Definition: Internet-of-Things (IoT) concentrates on enabling communication between Things. It is a broadband network that uses standard communication protocols. Geospatial Information System (GIS) is a powerful set of tools that deal with capturing geospatial data, managing that data in a database, analyzing and pattern recognition, and finally visualizing information. IoT, as an emerging technology along with GIS, can result in advanced and user-friendly features in Smart Cities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Karol Król
Definition: Hardware heritage is the history of both hardware and software. Human knowledge, experience, and skills are translated into computation models (binary code) in software and computer environment (‘digital ecosystem’). The history of software is a history of how different communities of practitioners ‘put their world into a computer’.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Nov 2021
Definition: Olfactory displays are defined as human–computer interfaces that generate and diffuse or transmit one or more odors to a user for a purpose. Computer-generated odors, in conjunction with other sensory information, have been proposed and used in education and training settings over the past four decades, supporting memorization of information, helping immerse learners into 3D educational environments, and complementing or supplementing human senses.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Nov 2021
Submitted by: RIZWAN PATAN
Definition: The technique PMIPv6/AAND (Proxy Mobile IPv6/Auxiliary Advertisement of Neighbor Detection) would introduce a novel Multiple Virtual Interface (MVI) technique in PMIPv6 to enable multi-homing. The technique supports effective inter-technology handover and solves the LL-ID swapping problem. Additional flag fields, auxiliary advertisement of neighbor detection (AAND)) fields, i.e., ‘D’ and ‘R’ are displayed in PMIPv6 message format. The new technique is known as PMIPv6/AAND, adapted from F-PMIPv6.
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