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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Alexandru C. Razus
Definition: The nonalternant aromatic azulene, an isomer of alternant naphthalene, differs from the latter in peculiar properties. The large polarization of the π-electron system over the seven and five rings gives to azulene electrophile property a pronounced tendency to donate electrons to an acceptor, substituted at azulene 1 position. This paper presents cases in which azulene transfers electrons to a suitable acceptor as methylium ions, positive charged heteroaromatics and examples of neutral molecules that can accept electrons.
Entry Collection : Chemical Bond
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Ren Jie Tuieng
Definition: Non-ionising ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ionising radiation differ in their interactions with biomolecules, resulting in varied consequences. Here describing the underlying molecular interactions of radiation in the context of biological systems and their outcomes from exposure.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Ione Hunt Von Herbing
Definition: Crucial events are generated by criticality, namely by the processes of phase transition from disorder to correlated disorder, affecting key organismal network functions. There is, as suggested by, “a subtle connection between informational exchange within and between networks and the complexity (non-simplicity) of those networks”. West and Grigolini replaced the term complexity with non-simplicity and explain their reasoning by stating that in physics it is easier to understand how phenomena function by the properties or characteristics that are missing, rather than those that are present.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Albert Rimola
Definition: The main objective of computational chemistry is to solve chemical problems by simulating chemical systems (molecular, biological, materials) in order to provide reliable, accurate and comprehensive information at an atomic level. To this end, there are two main methodological families: those based on quantum chemical methods and those based on molecular mechanics. The former are methods in which the electrons are explicitly accounted for, while in the latter their presence is hidden in the force field.
Entry Collection : Chemical Bond
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Stefano Falcinelli
Definition: Experimental and theoretical studies of either characterization and reactivity of ionic and excited species with atoms, molecules, and radicals of interest in the chemistry of plasmas and energy production. Single and ionized species with single or multiple charge (H+, He+, H3+, HCO+, H3O+, He22+, CO22+, etc.), excited atoms and molecules (e.g. O(1D), N(2D), H*(2s2S1/2), He*(21,3S0,1), N2*(A3Σu+), etc.) play a crucial role in various important chemical systems such as flames (i.e. chemi-ionizations), natural plasmas (i.e. planetary ionospheres, comet tails and interstellar clouds), and biological environments (e.g. damaged biological tissues via the interaction between ionizing radiation and living cells). Such processes are very interesting from a fundamental point of view in Physical Chemistry and attracted the attention of a wide scientific community, since many applications to important fields: radiation chemistry, plasma physics and chemistry, combustion processes, development of laser sources. In particular, the conversion of waste carbon dioxide via assisted plasma technology gained recently increasing interest due to the possibility of obtaining value-added products, like gaseous or liquid fuels. Such characteristics make this an encouraging strategy for the storage of electrical energy from renewable sources into chemical energy in a circular economy scheme.
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Biography
Updated time: 23 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Lucas Lamata
Abstract: Prof. Lucas Lamata is an Associate Professor in Theoretical Physics working at the Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics of Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Jean-Michel GUENET
Definition: The physics side of organogelation is broached through three main aspects, thermodynamics (formation and melting), structure (morphology and molecular organization), and rheology. Organogelation is a system constituted of fibril-like entities. Gel formation occurs through first-order transitions, chiefly by homogeneous nucleation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Lucas Lamata
Definition: Quantum machine learning has emerged as a promising paradigm that could accelerate machine learning calculations. Inside this field, quantum reinforcement learning aims at designing and building quantum agents that may exchange information with their environment and adapt to it, with the aim of achieving some goal. Different quantum platforms have been considered for quantum machine learning and specifically for quantum reinforcement learning. Here, we review the field of quantum reinforcement learning and its implementation with quantum platforms. This quantum technology may enhance quantum computation and communication, as well as machine learning, via the fruitful marriage between these previously unrelated fields.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: EULALIA BALESTRIERI
Definition: An Unmanned System (US) or Vehicle (UV) can be defined as an “electro-mechanical system, with no human operator aboard, that is able to exert its power to perform designed missions”
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Slawomir Grabowski
Definition: There are the following main assumptions of the Valence-shell Electron-pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model. - The arrangement of covalent bonds of the atom centre analyzed depends on the number of electron pairs in its valence shell: bonds and nonbonding pairs as lone electron pairs. - The arrangement of valence electron pairs around the centre considered is to maximize their distances apart. - The non-valence electrons - inner electrons with nucleus (i.e. the core) possess the spherical symmetry (or at least it is in force for the main groups elements). It is worth to note that the intra- and intermolecular interactions influence on electronic and molecular structures in accordance with this VSEPR model.
Entry Collection : Chemical Bond
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