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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Definition: The modern boron applications have adsorbed the mineral processors’ attention to improve typical boron mineral’s (BM) beneficiation methods. In this regard, dry treatment and pretreatment processes—such as magnetic separation and calcination as environmentally friendly methods, due to their minimal or zero adverse effect on the environment—need more consideration. Over the years, anionic flotation has become the main technique for beneficiation of friable BMs; however, there is a gap in the investigation of cationic flotation separation since BMs’ surface negatively charges in a wide pH range. At present, enriching BMs’ flotation via surface modification is taking center stage, which can also be considered for reprocessing long-forgotten BM tailings.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 May 2021
Submitted by: Anders Hansson
Definition: As land-based mining industries face increasing complexities, e.g., diminishing return on investments, environmental degradation, and geopolitical tensions, governments are searching for alternatives. Following decades of anticipation, technological innovation, and exploration, deep seabed mining (DSM) in the oceans has, according to the mining industry and other proponents, moved closer to implementation. The DSM industry is currently waiting for international regulations that will guide future exploitation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ekhard K. H. Salje
Definition: Ferroelastic twinning in minerals is a very common phenomenon. The twin laws follow simple symmetry rules and they are observed in minerals, like feldspar, palmierite, leucite, perovskite, and so forth. The major discovery over the last two decades was that the thin areas between the twins yield characteristic physical and chemical properties, but not the twins themselves. Research greatly focusses on these twin walls (or ‘twin boundaries’); therefore, because they possess different crystal structures and generate a large variety of ‘emerging’ properties. Research on wall properties has largely overshadowed research on twin domains.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Maximina Romero
Definition: Mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) is an aluminosilicate characterized by excellent physical properties, which makes it an important ceramic material. In this way, ceramics based on mullite find applications in different technological fields as refractory material (metallurgy, glass, ceramics, etc.), matrix in composite materials for high temperature applications, substrate in multilayer packaging, protective coatings, components of turbine engines, windows transparent to infrared radiation, etc. However, mullite is scarce in nature so it has to be manufactured through different synthesis methods, such as sintering, melting-crystallization or through a sol-gel route.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jul 2021
Submitted by: MEHMET ALI RECAI ONAL
Definition: The ferromanganese (FeMn) alloy is produced through the smelting-reduction of manganese ores in submerged arc furnaces. This process generates large amounts of furnace dust that is environmentally problematic for storage. Due to its fineness and high volatile content, this furnace dust cannot be recirculated through the process, either. Conventional MnO2 production requires the pre-reduction of low-grade ores at around 900 °C to convert the manganese oxides present in the ore into their respective acid-soluble forms; however, the furnace dust is a partly reduced by-product. A hydrometallurgical route is proposed to valorize the waste dust for the production of battery-grade MnO2. By using dextrin, a cheap organic reductant, the direct and complete dissolution of the manganese in the furnace dust is possible without any need for high-temperature pre-reduction. The leachate is then purified through pH adjustment followed by direct electrowinning for electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. An overall manganese recovery rate of >90% is achieved.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Updated time: 28 May 2021
Submitted by: Tomasz Sliwa
Abstract: The rotary-percussion drilling method is a prospective way to decrease drilling costs. It is obvious, based on literature analyses and finished geothermal drilling, that the Lublin Basin can be perceived as the one where rotary-percussion drilling can be used to drill an overburden of shale rocks. The paper explained the geology of the Lublin Basin, its’ geological structures, and the possibility of the use of drilling with a down-the-hole hammer, which could significantly decrease the cost of the whole shale gas drilling investment. Data collected from the wells drilled in the Lublin Basin were compared and analyzed to determine the viability of rotary-percussion drilling. Provided analyses showed that using the rotary-percussion drilling method in the Lublin Basin had a greater possibility of application than in other Polish shale basins (Baltic and Podlasie).
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Submitted by: Eugene Ben-Awuah
Definition: It is important that the strategic mine plan makes optimum use of available resources and provides continuous quality ore to drive sustainable mining and profitability. This requires the development of a well-integrated strategy of mining options for surface and/or underground mining and their interactions. Understanding the current tools and methodologies used in the mining industry for surface and underground mining options and transitions planning are essential to dealing with complex and deep-seated deposits that are amenable to both surface and underground mining.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 May 2021
Submitted by: Norman Toro
Definition: In several countries, and especially in northern Chile, most mining operations and tailings disposal are carried out near the mine. However, the tailings disposal has turned out to have certain exceptions in managing waste from ores processing by froth flotation. Countries like Chile, Peru, Norway, Canada, the Philippines, Spain, and Indonesia have active or abandoned underwater tailings on the coasts and at the submarine level. The underwater tailings of Chañaral Bay, Chile, and Ite Bay, Peru, are examples of the lack of scientific studies that can damage the marine environment. Potential environmental disasters caused a change towards the surface disposal of the tailings. Nowadays, society’s pressures on surface tailing dumps have driven research on sustainable mining waste discharge to the seabed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Definition: Talc is a naturally hydrophobic gangue mineral in most sulfide ores. However, talc has vast applications in the cosmetics, paper, and paint industries due to its high chemical stability, and its demand continues to grow. Since flotation is the most effective beneficiation technique for upgrading sulfides, the high hydrophobicity of talc has made its selective separation challenging.
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