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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Jeonghoon Lee
Definition: 17O is the one of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen, and also it has the lowest abundance, 0.038%(). The distribution of isotopes in hydrological systems is controlled by isotope fractionation processes. Oxygen isotopes fractionate through mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, which includes kinetic processes, isotopic exchange reactions, and physicochemical phenomena (diffusion, condensation, and evaporation).
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Sep 2021
Definition: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are water treatment processes that are promising for the degradation of persistent or toxic organic pollutants, as well as compounds refractory to other environmental remediation/decontamination treatments. AOPs have gained great importance as alternative treatment processes that affect the degradation of organic species through the action of the hydroxyl radical (OH), oxidizing pollutants present in wastewater and industrial effluents. AOPs are carried out at room temperature and at a pressure close to normal, which involve the formation of very reactive radical species with a high oxidizing capacity, mainly hydroxyl (OH) radicals. These OH radicals are extremely reactive oxidizers (oxidation potential of the OH radical is approximately, Eθ = 2.8 V) and non-selective towards organic pollutants in wastewater. AOPs can be considered versatile technologies, as they provide different possible alternatives to produce OH radicals. AOPs, compared to conventional water treatment techniques, have a greater efficiency and capacity to degrade recalcitrant organic pollutants, and can generate less toxic intermediate products during their degradation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Dražen Lušić
Definition: Bathing water management in the European Union (EU) is regulated by Bathing Water Directive (BWD) 2006/7/EC. The first Directive came into force in 1976 (76/160/EEC) and set the standards for designated bathing waters to be met by all EU Member States. Its main objective was to safeguard public health and protect the aquatic environment in coastal and inland areas from pollution. The Directive was repealed in 2006 by the new, revised BWD 2006/7/EC. The purpose of the new BWD is to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment and to protect human health. It lays down provisions for the monitoring and classification of bathing water quality, the management of bathing water quality and the procedures for informing the public about bathing water quality. All Member States were required to transpose the revised BWD into national law by 2008, with full implementation due by December 2014.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Annabel Fernandes
Definition: Complex wastewater matrices present a major environmental concern. Besides the biodegradable organics, they may contain a great variety of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. The electrochemically activated persulfate process, an efficient way to generate sulfate radicals, has been widely applied to the degradation of such complex effluents with very good results.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Zongli Xie
Definition: Forward osmosis (FO), driven by the osmotic pressure difference between solutions divided by a semi-permeable membrane, has been recognised as a potential energy-efficient filtration process with a low tendency for fouling and a strong ability to filtrate highly polluted wastewater.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Maria De Lurdes Dinis
Definition: Groundwater contamination is one of the most concerning issues from uranium mining activities. Radionuclides cannot be destroyed or degraded, unlike some organic contaminants (and similar to metals). Besides, sites, where radionuclides may be found, are mainly radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas, and therefore many other contaminants may also be present in groundwater.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Raoul Manenti
Definition: Pollution is a major threat for freshwater ecosystems; particularly, environmental degradation is depleting water resources, whether because the surface waters contain higher amounts of pollutants, or because pollutants through the soil attain even the underground water reserves. Assessing the effects of pollution is recently considered among the most relevant aims for subterranean biology. However, the impact of pollution on stygofauna varies according to pollutants typology and abundance, and assessing its effects may not be trivial. Even in cases of relatively small concentrations of pollutants in soils and epikarst, their release may be prolonged and determine a chronic groundwater pollution with unexpected detrimental effects. As stygobionts usually have long life cycles, the comprehension of exposure to certain compounds is far from being understood and may have implications on survival, fitness, and fertility rates. Stygofauna is likely intolerant to even a small alteration of such chemical concentrations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Aonghus Mcnabola
Definition: Wastewater from domestic, industrial and commercial developments maintains considerable amounts of thermal energy after discharging into the sewer system.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Moshe Gophen
Definition: The Hula Valley in northern Israel was partly covered by swamps and a shallow lake. The entire valley was drained and converted for agricultural cultivation. Later, an additional soil reclamation operation was implemented, including eco-tourism. From the early 1990s, winter migratory cranes have attracted visitors, thus supporting the hydrological management of the entire valley that protects the downstream Lake Kinneret.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ana Pereira
Definition: Legionella is responsible for the life-threatening pneumonia commonly known as Legionnaires’ disease or legionellosis. Legionellosis is known to be preventable if proper measures are put into practice. Despite the efforts to improve preventive approaches, Legionella control remains one of the most challenging issues in the water treatment industry. Legionellosis incidence is on the rise and is expected to keep increasing as global challenges become a reality. This puts great emphasis on prevention, which must be grounded in strengthened Legionella management practices. The perpetuation of a water focused monitoring approach and the importance of protozoa and biofilms are bottom-line questions for reliable Legionella real-field surveillance. Under this scope an integrated monitoring model is proposed to study and control Legionella at water systems, by combining discrete and continuous information about water and biofilm. Although the successful implementation of such model requires a broader discussion across the scientific community and practitioners, this might be a starting point to build more consistent Legionella management strategies that can effectively mitigate legionellosis risks by reinforcing a pro-active Legionella prevention philosophy.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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