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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Houwen Matthew Pan
Definition: Osteoarthritis of the knee with meniscal pathologies is a severe meniscal pathology suffered by the aging population worldwide. However, conventional meniscal substitutes are not 3D-printable and lack the customizability of 3D printed implants and are not mechanically robust enough for human implantation. Similarly, 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds suffer from drawbacks of being mechanically weak and as a result patients are unable to execute immediate post-surgical weight-bearing ambulation and rehabilitation. To solve this problem, we have developed a 3D silicone meniscus implant which is (1) cytocompatible, (2) resistant to cyclic loading and mechanically similar to native meniscus, and (3) directly 3D printable. The main focus of this study is to determine whether the purity, composition, structure, dimensions and mechanical properties of silicone implants are affected by the use of a custom-made in-house 3D-printer. We have used the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) absorption test, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface profilometry, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to effectively assess and compare material properties between molded and 3D printed silicone samples.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Muhammad Arif Mahmood
Definition: Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) and two-photon polymerization (TPP) have proven their abilities to produce 3D complex microstructures at an extraordinary level of sophistication. Indeed, LIFT and TPP have supported the vision of providing a whole functional laboratory at a scale that can fit in the palm of a hand. This is only possible due to the developments in manufacturing at micro- and nano-scales. In a short time, LIFT and TPP have gained popularity, from being a microfabrication innovation utilized by laser experts to become a valuable instrument in the hands of researchers and technologists performing in various research and development areas, such as electronics, medicine, and micro-fluidics. In comparison with conventional micro-manufacturing methods, LIFT and TPP can produce exceptional 3D components. To gain benefits from LIFT and TPP, in-detail comprehension of the process and the manufactured parts’ mechanical–chemical characteristics is required.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Naba Dutta
Definition: Electrically conductive hydrogels (ECHs), an emerging class of biomaterials, have garnered tremendous attention due to their potential for a wide variety of biomedical applications, from tissue-engineered scaffolds to smart bioelectronics. Along with the development of new hydrogel systems, 3D printing of such ECHs is one of the most advanced approaches towards rapid fabrication of future biomedical implants and devices with versatile designs and tuneable functionalities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 May 2021
Submitted by: Athanasios Skandalis
Definition: This entry aims to cover the most recent advances regarding the synthesis of linear ABC-type triblock terpolymers by RAFT polymerization, as well as their self-assembly properties in aqueous solutions. RAFT polymerization has received extensive attention, as it is a versatile technique, compatible with a great variety of functional monomers and reaction conditions, while providing exceptional and precise control over the final structure, with well-defined side-groups and post-polymerization engineering potential. Linear triblock terpolymers synthesis can lead to very interesting novel ideas, since there are countless combinations of stimuli/non-stimuli and hydrophilic/hydrophobic monomers that someone can use. One of their most interesting features is their ubiquitous ability to self-assemble in different nanostructures depending on their degree of polymerization (DP), block composition, solubilization protocol, internal and external stimuli.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Waleed Ahmed
Definition: 3D Printing, also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF), continues to open new routes to the production of high-performance and complex structures with enhanced properties and dynamic shapes that are unattainable via conventional fabrication methods.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Andrea Pucci
Definition: Mechanochromic fluorescent polymers are defined as materials that are able to detect a mechanical stressthrough a fluorescence output. This feature has evoked a growing interest in the last decades, thanks to theprogress of fluorogenic molecules whose optical characteristics and chemical functionalities allowtheir effective insertion in many thermoplastic and thermoset matrices. Among the different types offluorogenic probes able to detect mechanical solicitations, those with aggregation-induced emission(i.e., AIEgens) have attracted tremendous interest since their discovery in 2001. In this contribution,the main principles behind the AIEgens working behavior are introduced along with the current stateof knowledge concerning the design and preparation of the derived mechanochromic fluorescentpolymers. Examples are provided concerning the most ingenious solution for the preparation ofchromogenic materials, starting from dierent types of commodity plastics or synthetic polymers andcombined with the latest AIE technology to provide the most sensitive response to mechanical stress.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Feb 2021
Definition: Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) is a phenomenon that consists of the appearance of fluorescence in solid state or aggregation greater than that of molecules in solution and has recently attracted the attention of the scientific community because of their potential applications in different fields. Compared to small molecules, little attention has been paid to polymers and oligomers that exhibit AIE, despite having excellent properties such as high emission efficiency in aggregate and solid states, signal amplification effect, good processability and the availability of multiple functionalization sites. In addition to these features, if the molecular structure is fully conjugated, intramolecular electronic interactions between the composing chromophores may appear, thus giving rise to a wealth of new photophysical properties. In this review, we focus on selected fully conjugated oligomers, dendrimers and polymers, and briefly summarize their synthetic routes, fluorescence properties and potential applications. An exhaustive comparison between spectroscopic results in solution and aggregates or in solid state has been collected in almost all examples, and an opinion on the future direction of the field is briefly stated.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Dec 2020
Definition: Alkylimidazoles have good complexing properties, also they are cheap so can be successfully used in the separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Faouzi Ben Rebah
Definition: Aloe vera plant offers a sustainable solution for the removal of various pollutants from water. Due to its chemical composition, Aloe vera has been explored as coagulant/flocculant and biosorbent for water treatment.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 May 2021
Submitted by: Ioan Botiz
Definition: Certain natural and synthetic polymers are versatile materials that have already proved themselves to be highly suitable for the development of the next-generation of antimicrobial systems that can efficiently prevent and kill microbes in various environments.
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