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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Mustapha Jouiad
Definition: Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Virendra Kumar Yadav
Definition: Coal fly ash (CFA) is a major global pollutant produced by thermal power plants during the generation of electricity. A significant amount of coal fly ash is dumped every year in the near vicinity of the thermal power plants, resulting in the spoilage of agricultural land. CFA has numerous value-added structural elements, such as cenospheres, plerospheres, ferrospheres, and carbon particles. Cenospheres are spherical-shaped solid-filled particles, formed during the combustion of coal in thermal power plants. They are lightweight, have high mechanical strength, and are rich in Al-Si particles. Due to cenospheres’ low weight and high mechanical strength, they are widely used as ceramic/nanoceramics material, fireproofing material, and in nanocomposites.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Roger Arasa
Definition: Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are 2D or 3D low density crystalline porous materials with periodically ordered skeletons constituted by organic molecules linked through covalent bonds. They were first reported by Yaghi and collaborators in 2005 from condensation of benzenediboronic acid (BDBA) alone and in the presence of hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) in a simple one-pot procedure at 120 °C, obtaining a boroxine COF (COF-1) and a boronate ester COF (COF-5), respectively. Since then, there has been steady growth in the number of published works dealing with the synthesis, properties, and catalytic applications of COFs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Kuo Liu
Definition: The deposit-forming problem is one of the main bottlenecks restricting the yield and production benefit of iron ore pellets produced by coal-fired rotary kilns. In order to implement measures to ensure the efficient production of pellets by coal-fired rotary kilns, the mechanism and influencing factors on the deposit formation were reviewed. The pellet powder and coal ash come together to form the material base of the deposit.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Adeline Leung
Definition: The crystal packing strategies described in this entry can reduce the flexibility of the interacting regions. Some of these crystal packing modules generate symmetry, which should promote crystallization because proteins with molecular symmetry are known to crystallize more readily than those without molecular symmetry. For example, the kissing loop complex generates two-fold symmetry, the G-quadruplex generates a four-fold symmetry, and the 3WJ junction has been further engineered to form a stable planar triangle, square, and pentagon using oligonucleotides.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ekhard K. H. Salje
Definition: Ferroelastic twinning in minerals is a very common phenomenon. The twin laws follow simple symmetry rules and they are observed in minerals, like feldspar, palmierite, leucite, perovskite, and so forth. The major discovery over the last two decades was that the thin areas between the twins yield characteristic physical and chemical properties, but not the twins themselves. Research greatly focusses on these twin walls (or ‘twin boundaries’); therefore, because they possess different crystal structures and generate a large variety of ‘emerging’ properties. Research on wall properties has largely overshadowed research on twin domains.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Hanlin Hu
Definition: Lead-free perovskites have received remarkable attention because of their nontoxicity, low-cost fabrication, and spectacular properties including controlled bandgap, long diffusion length of charge carrier, large absorption coefficient, and high photoluminescence quantum yield. Compared with the widely investigated polycrystals, single crystals have advantages of lower trap densities, longer diffusion length of carrier, and extended absorption spectrum due to the lack of grain boundaries, which facilitates their potential in different fields including photodetectors, solar cells, X-ray detectors, light-emitting diodes, and so on.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Latifa Al-Hajji
Definition: Mechanical milling (MM) has attracted great attention as a powerful tool for the synthesis of a variety of sophisticated materials, including equilibrium, nonequilibrium (e.g., amorphous, quasicrystals, nanodiamonds, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystalline powders), and nanocomposite materials. The MM is a unique process in that it involves a solid-state interaction between the reactant materials’ fresh powder surfaces at room temperature. As a result, it has been used to fabricate alloys and compounds that are difficult or impossible to acquire using standard melting and casting processes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Jun Xu
Definition: Nucleation plays a vital role in polymer crystallization, in which chain connectivity and thus the multiple length and time scales make crystal nucleation of polymer chains an interesting but complex subject. Though the topic has been intensively studied in the past decades, there are still many open questions to answer. The final properties of semicrystalline polymer materials are affected by all of the following: the starting melt, paths of nucleation, organization of lamellar crystals and evolution of the final crystalline structures. In this viewpoint, we attempt to discuss some of the remaining open questions and corresponding concepts: non-equilibrated polymers, self-induced nucleation, microscopic kinetics of different processes, metastability of polymer lamellar crystals, hierarchical order and cooperativity involved in nucleation, etc. Addressing these open questions through a combination of novel concepts, new theories and advanced approaches provides a deeper understanding of the multifaceted process of crystal nucleation of polymers.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: ADNAN ALI
Definition: Materials crystalizing in the perovskite crystal structure are common crystals that are currently employed for multiples applications, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting devices, memories, catalysts, and superconductors.One of the biggest players within the perovskite structures is the family of oxide perovskites. This is a prominent family with the general formula of ABO3, where A commonly designates an alkaline or rare earth metal cation, occupying the 12-fold coordinated cuboctahedral cages of the oxygen sub-lattice, and B stands for a transition-metal cation (e.g., Fe, Ni, Mn, Co, Cu, or Ti) coordinated with six oxygen atoms in an octahedral coordination. In fact, in the perovskite structure, distortions frequently occur due to the deviation from ideal values of ionic size ratios between the different A, B, and O sites of the crystal. In addition, A or B cations may have distinctive sizes and valences that could result into oxygen non-stoichiometry, involving both oxygen excess and/or oxygen deficiency.
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