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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Giorgio Palma
Definition: Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. The potential of metamaterial-based technologies has recently caught the interest of the aeronautics community. Their effect in the presence of realistic flows in the surrounding domains, with boundary layer, turbulence, is currently a hot research topic. The interaction with flow requires a careful design of the metamaterial to avoid detrimental effects and enabling the device maximum capabilities in aeronautics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Natalia Manousi
Definition: In recent years, there has been an increase in public perception of the detrimental side-effects of fluoride to human health due to its effects on teeth and bones. Today, there is a plethora of techniques available for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Among them, adsorption is a very prospective method because of its handy operation, cost efficiency, and high selectivity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 May 2021
Submitted by: Radovan Kopecek
Definition: In 2016 the first >2 MWp fixed tilt bifacial PV system (“La Hormiga”) was built by MegaCell in San Felipe, located in the region of Valparaiso in Chile, using nPERT BiSoN modules. The innovations in this system were the adapted mounting structures (which were not covering the rear side of the modules), as well as the enhancement of albedo using white quartz stones below them. The bifacial gain was about 15% with the natural albedo of ca. 28%, whereas the albedo enhancement to 75% provided by the white stones led to a bifacial gain of about 25%. After that, Sunpreme installed their SHJ (Silicon HeteroJunction) modules in a 10 MWp bifacial system on a US industrial rooftop, and large bifacial systems were installed in China in the TopRunner program, where the Chinese Government was supporting innovations to be introduced into the market. Yingli installed a fixed tilt 50 MWp system with bifacial nPERT Panda modules, followed by a 100 MWp “Panda PV system” in 2018. Since then large bifacial PV systems are entering the PV market. In 2021 bifacial PV became bankable and will become main-stream in the coming 5 years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 May 2021
Submitted by: Bozena Tyliszczak
Definition: Regenerative medicine is becoming a rapidly evolving technique in today’s biomedical progress scenario. Scientists around the world suggest the use of naturally synthesized biomaterials to repair and heal damaged cells. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has the potential to replace drugs in biomedical engineering and regenerative drugs. HAp is easily biodegradable, biocompatible, and correlated with macromolecules, which facilitates their incorporation into inorganic materials.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Klaudia Hurtukov√°
Definition: Natural patterns and structures provide inspiration for scientists of diverse technological backgrounds to create artificial products (from different materials) with similar properties as naturally occurring products. One such pattern is the naturally occurring honeycomb-like pattern (HCP). The surfaces of products with this pattern consists of thousands of interconnected hexagonally formed cells that create an efficient structure with a large surface area. The HCP, due to its excellent properties, such as structural and mechanical strength, low density, and porosity, has found applications in several areas, including architecture, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and biomedicine. HCP-like structures have also been widely used as carriers in tissue engineering (TE).
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Yuqing Liu
Definition: Compatibility, a critical issue between sensing material and host structure, significantly influences the detecting performance (e.g., sensitive, signal-to-noise ratio) of the embedded sensor. To address this issue in concrete-based infrastructural health monitoring, cement-based piezoelectric composites (piezoelectric ceramic particles as a function phase and cementitious materials as a matrix) have attracted continuous attention in the past two decades, dramatically exhibiting superior durability, sensitivity, and compatibility.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michalis Konsolakis
Definition: The rational design and fabrication of highly-active and cost-efficient catalytic materials constitutes the main research pillar in catalysis field. In this context, the fine-tuning of size and shape at nanometer scale can exert an intense impact not only on the inherent reactivity of catalyst’s counterparts but also on their interfacial interactions, opening up new horizons for the development of highly active and robust materials. The main implications of ceria nanoparticles’ shape engineering (rods, cubes, polyhedra) in catalysis are revealed, on the ground of some of the most pertinent heterogeneous reactions, such as CO2 hydrogenation, CO oxidation, and N2O decomposition. It is clearly revealed that shape functionalization can remarkably affect the intrinsic features and in turn the reactivity of ceria nanoparticles. More importantly, by combining ceria nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) of specific architecture with various transition metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Co, Ni) remarkably active multifunctional composites can be obtained due mainly to the synergistic metal-ceria interactions, providing the design principles of earth-abundant metal oxide catalysts for various real-life environmental and energy applications.
Topic review
Updated time: 04 May 2021
Submitted by: Ke Wang
Definition: This entry introduces the environmental stability of MAPbI3 perovskite thin film and MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystal.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Sneha Samal
Definition: Fiber-reinforced geopolymer composite (FRGC) is emerging as one of the alternative materials for cement in the construction industry. FRGC is considered an eco-friendly material due to its role in the global reduction in emission of CO2 to the environment. Simultaneously, the composite provides good mechanical strength of flexural modulus, loss modulus, post-impact strength, and durability for a definite period at room and elevated temperatures. A positive aspect of the geopolymer matrix used for this composite is that could provide a finite period of durability at elevated temperatures without releasing toxic gases to the surroundings. Fibers enhanced the brittle behavior of the geopolymer matrix into ductile one with improved mechanical strength and residual impact strength.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Hyeonseok Yoon
Definition: Currently, polymers are competing with metals and ceramics to realize various material characteristics, including mechanical and electrical properties. Flame retardants can also be introduced to further reinforce the fire performance of polymers.
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