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Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Paul Chinonso Uzoma
Definition: Materials can be rightly characterized as 2D material or nanosheet if only one of its dimensions is in nano-size, they usually resemble a large sheet with one or few atomic thickness layers (more like a sheet of paper). This explains the fundamental characteristic of 2D materials and their unique properties that made them very attractive in tribological applications. Also, the method of preparation of the materials are highlighted.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Simon Pepin
Definition: Wood used outdoor is subjected to different sources of degradation and should be protected properly. In this study, acrylic resins were added to a wood impregnation system using amine oxides and propiconazole, an organic fungicide, to create a two-part wood protection preservation treatment. Since amine oxides can diffuse readily into wood, this treatment protected both the surface and inner structure of the treated wood following a simple dipping. Many aspects of the treatment were studied: the adhesion of the acrylic coatings, their permeability to water, and the impregnation depth of the propiconazole. In each case, a particular attention was accorded to the interactions between the resins and the impregnation system. Adhesion and permeability tests were coupled with an artificial aging process simulating severely wet conditions. Amine oxides reduced the adhesion of the coatings, but did not impair their aging properties. Because of their hydrophilic nature, they also increased the permeability to liquid water, although they did not affect the air moisture permeability. The penetration of the propiconazole, estimated with a dye, decreased with the resin. Overall, the two parts of the treatment lightly impaired each other, but the practical aspect of this treatment may overcome these disadvantages.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ana Sanches-Silva
Definition: Active edible packaging is a food packaging made of comestible bioproducts and active compounds that interacts with the food. The bioproducts, usually biopolymers, must be recognized as safe and with characteristics to be consumed by humans—comestible—and not toxic and capable of carrying an active compound, like anti-browning agents, colorants, flavors, nutrients, antimicrobial and/or antioxidant compounds, in order to extend the product shelf-life, reduce contamination and maintain or even enhance the nutritional value.
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Videos
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
On Wednesday 30 September 2020, the webinar on “Advanced Coating for Buildings” will be held in the frame of the e-book launch on “Advanced Coating for Buildings”, which was edited by Professors Aníbal Maury-Ramírez from Colombia, Inês Flores Colen from Portugal and Hideyuki Kanematsu from Japan. Based on the current need to achieve sustainable development, multiperformance coatings have been developed for building applications (new and existing ones) to improve durability and to achieve novel, sustainable and health functions. Although there are already some commercially available coating products on the market, their application in the construction sector is still not very common. With some exceptions, this situation is most probably due to the lack of reported scientific evidence and the fact that there are still numerous unanswered questions about the concept and application. Therefore, this webinar aims to provide recent research and works on the application potential of advanced coatings for buildings, and intends to give new scientific insights into the interrelation between science, engineering, architecture and other disciplines, by means of advanced techniques for coatings’ characterization and their application. Specifically, in this webinar, speakers will present recent research and resolve questions on: "Advanced Protective Coatings for Buildings”, "Nanocoatings with Air-Purifying Properties”, "Antifouling Coatings”, "Ultra-Low Biofouling Materials and Coatings” and "Biological Coatings for Buildings”.
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Videos
Updated time: 10 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Corrosion of engineering alloys and its mitigation measures generate high costs for any developed economy and traditional measures have brought about significant corrosion mitigation. Therefore, exploring a disruptive approach in developing novel materials and coatings for durable corrosion mitigation is in demand. The webinar was chaired by Prof. Dr. Raman Singh, his primary research interests are in the relationship of nano-micro structure, environment-assisted degradation, fracture of metallic and composite materials, and nanotechnology for advanced mitigation of such degradations. Prof. Dr. Singh welcomed the audience to the subject and introduced the two expert researchers Assistant Prof. Dr. Marjetka Conradi, spoke about the Manipulation of TiO2 Nanoparticle / Polymer Coatings Wettability and Friction in Different Environments; whereas Prof. Dr. Marina Cabrini focused her presentation mainly on Corrosion Behavior of New Alloys Obtained by Additive Manufacturing.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Joerg Vetter
Definition: AlCr-based hard nitride coatings with different chemical compositions and architectures have been successfully developed and applied over the last few decades. Coating properties are mainly influenced by deposition conditions and the Al/Cr content. The fcc structure is dominant for an Al-content up to Al0.7Cr0.3N and is preferred for most cutting applications. Different (AlCrX)N alloying concepts, including X = Si, W, B, V, have been investigated in order to enhance oxidation resistance and wear behaviour and to provide tribological properties. AlCr-based oxynitrides and even pure oxides (Al1−xCrx)2O3 with different crystalline structures have been explored. Multi- and nanolayered coatings within the AlCr materials system, as well as in combination with (TiSi)N, for example, have also been implemented industrially. The dominant deposition technology is the vacuum arc process. Recently, advanced high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) processes have also been successfully applied on an industrial scale.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Annalisa Volpe
Definition: In numerous fields such as aerospace, the environment, and energy supply, ice generation and accretion represent a severe issue. For this reason, numerous methods have been developed for ice formation to be delayed and/or to inhibit ice adhesion to the substrates. Among them, laser micro/nanostructuring of surfaces aiming to obtain superhydrophobic behavior has been taken as a starting point for engineering substrates with anti-icing properties.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Richard Weiss
Definition: Benzil (BZ) can be converted almost quantitatively to benzoyl peroxide (BP) in aerated polymer films upon irradiation at >400 nm (i.e., the long-wavelength edge of the n→π* absorption band of BZ, where BP does not absorb).
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Mohammad Nur E Alam
Definition: In this encyclopaedia entry, we are reporting on the unconventional magnetic switching properties of sputtered all-garnet multilayer thin film structures. Within the scope of this study, thin magnetic trilayers were fabricated on both garnet and glass substrates, in which magneto-soft material layers are sandwiched in-between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of identical composition type.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Aug 2020
Submitted by: Kim Brogden
Definition: In this entry, we compiled a variety of creative approaches to generate antimicrobial bioactive coatings. The benefits are very desirable: to create surfaces that either repel the attachment of viable microorganisms or kill microorganisms on contact without inducing inflammation or cytotoxicity to host tissues. These coatings may consist of nanoparticles of pure elements (e.g. silver, copper, and zinc), sanitizing agents and disinfectants (e.g., quaternary ammonium ions and chlorhexidine), antibiotics (e.g., cefalotin, vancomycin, and gentamacin), or antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Many bioactive coatings may involve unique delivery systems to direct their antimicrobial capacity against pathogens, but not commensals. Coatings may also contain multiple antimicrobial substances to widen antimicrobial activity across multiple microbial species.
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