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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Oct 2021
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Definition: Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease that severely affects the biodiversity and economy of Eurasian coniferous forests. Three factors are described as the main elements of the disease: the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the insect-vector Monochamus spp., and the host tree, mainly Pinus spp. Nonetheless, other microbial interactors have also been considered.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Updated time: 16 Dec 2021
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Abstract: Although keratinophilic fungi on avian feathers have been widely described, data from European literature are quite lacking regarding Mediterranean countries. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of fungal species on feathers of different avian species in Italy. A total of 378 feather samples from both aquatic (n = 254) and terrestrial birds (n = 124), for a total of 30 bird species, were cultured for keratinophilic fungi. Fungal isolates were recognized by their macro- and micro-scopical morphology, and results were corroborated by PCR and sequencing. Keratinophilic fungi belonging to 11 different species (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Trichophyton terrestre, Microsporum gypseum, Sepedonium sp., Chrysosporium pannorum, Myriodontium sp., Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Chrysosporium luteum and Aphanoascus fulvescens) were isolated from 71 animals (18.8%). The frequency of isolation of keratinophilic species from terrestrial birds was significantly higher in waterfowl. Migratory birds in Italy have been proven to carry pathogenic fungi such as dermatophytes, (A. platyrhyncos, A. crecca, E. rubecula), besides saprophytic species.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
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Definition: Mycotic or fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening infection of the cornea by filamentous fungi or yeasts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Dec 2021
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Definition: Mucormycosis, a rare but highly fatal infection, is caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Due to their ubiquitous nature, reduced susceptibility to antifungals, acid tolerance, and ability to infect immunocompromised patients through rapid dissemination, these fungi have been frequently reported to infect the COVID-19 patients. In order to develop strategies to overcome mucormycosis, it is essential to understand and identify novel Mucorales present in the environment.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jan 2022
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Definition: Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that exist almost ubiquitously inside the various tissues of living plants where they act as an important reservoir of diverse bioactive compounds. Recently, endophytic fungi have drawn tremendous attention from researchers; their isolation, culture, purification, and characterization have revealed the presence of around 200 important and diverse compounds including anticancer agents, antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, immunosuppressants, and antimycotics. Many of these anticancer compounds, such as paclitaxel, camptothecin, vinblastine, vincristine, podophyllotoxin, and their derivatives, are currently being used clinically for the treatment of various cancers (e.g., ovarian, breast, prostate, lung cancers, and leukemias). By increasing the yield of specific compounds with genetic engineering and other biotechnologies, endophytic fungi could be a promising, prolific source of anticancer drugs. In the future, compounds derived from endophytic fungi could increase treatment availability and cost effectiveness.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Dec 2021
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Definition: The application of metabolomics has extended the scope of autophagy and provided newer intervention targets against cancer as well as neurodegenerative diseases in which autophagy is implicated.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
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Definition: The general approach of studying antifungal combinations is (i) to choose an experimental technique, (ii) to obtain raw numerical data, (iii) to analyze these data either graphically or numerically; (iv) to interpret the results, and (v) to conclude on the mode of interaction: synergy, indifference (no interaction), or antagonism.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Nov 2021
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Definition: C. auris has unprecedently emerged as a multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen considered a serious global threat due to its potential to cause nosocomial outbreaks and deep-seated infections with staggering transmissibility and mortality, that has put in check the health authorities and institutions worldwide for more than a decade now. Due to its unique features not observed in other yeasts, it has been categorized as an urgent threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the rest of international agencies. Moreover, epidemiological alerts have been released in view of the increase of healthcare-associated C. auris outbreaks in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review summarizes the current evidence on C. auris since its first description, from virulence to treatment and outbreak control, and highlights the knowledge gaps and future directions for research efforts.
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