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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Ying Zhang
Definition: Maintaining the effects of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) agents in order to control plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) in different ecological environments has been a major challenge in biological control applications. To achieve such an objective, it is important to understand how populations of the biocontrol agent NTF are geographically and ecologically structured.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 03 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Quentin Carboué
Definition: Amanita muscaria is the most emblematic mushroom in the popular representation. It is an ectomycorrhizal fungus endemic to the cold ecosystems of the northern hemisphere. The basidiocarp contains isoxazoles compounds that have specific actions on the central nervous system, including hallucinations. For this reason, it is considered an important entheogenic mushroom in different cultures whose remnants are still visible in some modern-day European traditions. In Siberian civilizations, it has been consumed for religious and recreational purposes for millennia, as it was the only inebriant in this region.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Stefano Varrella
Definition: Despite the harsh conditions, fungi are ubiquitously present in Antarctic ecosystems. The key to fungal success can be due to the vast array of specialized molecules, which allowed their colonization in almost every habitat of our Planet. In Antarctic marine environments, the fungal specific adaptions to low temperatures lead to the production of structurally novel enzymes and secondary metabolites that provide competitive advantages over other microorganisms. The bioprospecting of Antarctic fungi for new bioactive compounds and enzymes is important not only for elucidating their ecological role but also useful for developing blue biotechnologies.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 28 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Caradus John
Definition: Asexual Epichloë are obligate fungal mutualists that form symbiosis with many temperate grass species, providing several advantages to the host. These advantages include protection against vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores (i.e., grazing livestock and invertebrate pests, respectively), improved resistance to phytopathogens, increased adaptation to drought stress, nutrient deficiency, and heavy metal-containing soils. Selected Epichloë strains are utilised in agriculture mainly for their pest resistance traits, which are moderated via the production of Epichloë-derived secondary metabolites. For pastoral agriculture, the use of these endophyte infected grasses requires the balancing of protection against insect pests with reduced impacts on animal health and welfare.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Jose Ramos
Definition: Debaryomyces hansenii is a hemiascomycetous yeast of undoubted biotechnological importance. It is a heterogeneous yeast species able to grow under extreme conditions, such as high salt or relatively alkaline pH levels. This yeast has high respiratory and low fermentative activity. It ferments with important variations, depending on the strain and growth conditions used. Briefly, some examples of its beneficial effects are the production of xylitol, lipases, and exopeptidases important in the food industry, and of thermophilic β-glucosidases essential to produce fuel alcohol. Debaryomyces hansenii is, most probably, the most abundant yeast found in sausages and dry-meat products manufactured all around the world.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Rosario Nicoletti
Definition: The rise of the holobiont concept confers a prominent importance to the endophytic associates of plants, particularly to species known to be able to exert a mutualistic role as defensive or growth-promoting agents. The finding that many entomopathogenic fungi are harbored within plant tissues and possess bioactive properties going beyond a merely anti-insectan effect has recently prompted a widespread investigational activity concerning their occurrence and functions in crops, in the aim of an applicative exploitation conforming to the paradigm of sustainable agriculture.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Obinna Ezeokoli
Definition: Fungal co-infections are reported in severely ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, with a higher rate of incidence for aspergillosis followed by candidemia, as observed from our literature analysis. Fungal co-infections may increase disease severity and lead to more severe outcomes.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Maria Lurdes Inácio
Definition: Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a complex disease that severely affects the biodiversity and economy of Eurasian coniferous forests. Three factors are described as the main elements of the disease: the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the insect-vector Monochamus spp., and the host tree, mainly Pinus spp. Nonetheless, other microbial interactors have also been considered.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Jeremy Hoffman
Definition: Mycotic or fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening infection of the cornea by filamentous fungi or yeasts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Eric Dannaoui
Definition: The general approach of studying antifungal combinations is (i) to choose an experimental technique, (ii) to obtain raw numerical data, (iii) to analyze these data either graphically or numerically; (iv) to interpret the results, and (v) to conclude on the mode of interaction: synergy, indifference (no interaction), or antagonism.
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