Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Joana Santiago
Definition: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disruptor present in epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, which negatively disturbs the male reproductive system affecting male fertility. In vivo studies showed that BPA exposure has deleterious effects on spermatogenesis by disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing oxidative stress in the testis. This compound seems to disrupt hormone signalling even at low concentrations, modifying the levels of inhibin B, oestradiol, and testosterone. The adverse effects on seminal parameters are mainly supported by studies based on urinary BPA concentration, showing a negative association between BPA levels and sperm concentration, motility, normal morphology and sperm DNA damage.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 16 Sep 2021
Definition: Acquiring oocyte competence requires optimal mitochondrial function and adequate ATP levels. In this context, CoQ10 supplementation may improve human oocyte quality and subsequent reproductive performance given its role in ATP synthesis and mitochondrial protection from ROS oxidative damage. In infertility treatments, CoQ10 therapy can be orally supplied to promote a more favorable environment for oocyte development in vivo or by its addition to culture media in an attempt to improve its quality in vitro.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 27 May 2021
Submitted by: Andrea Dall'Asta
Definition: Early fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a complex and multifactorial disorder affecting fetal development. Most cases are related to uteroplacental dysfunction, while non-placental etiologies include chromosomal/genetic anomalies, congenital infections and inborn errors of metabolism.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Kamila Kolanska
Definition: The human endometrium is the only tissue that undergoes cyclic monthly structural modifications including proliferation, differentiation and shedding of the superficial layer during the so-called menstrual phase. During the proliferative phase, from day 1 of menses to ovulation day, the superficial layer regenerates from the basal layer under the action of estradiol. In the secretory phase, progesterone induces decidualization in the estradiol-primed endometrium, a crucial step for embryo implantation. These structural and functional modifications at the cellular and intercellular levels are finely orchestrated by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The molecular responses to hormonal stimuli are modulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages. Imbalance in cellular and molecular endometrial homeostasis may lead to gynecological disorders such as endometriosis, implantation failure, and endometrial cancer.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Definition: Endometrial infections are a common cause of reproductive loss in cattle. Accurate diagnosis is important to reduce the economic losses caused by endometritis. A range of sampling procedures have been developed which enable collection of endometrial tissue or luminal cells or uterine fluid. However, as these are all invasive procedures, there is a risk that sampling around the time of breeding may adversely affect subsequent pregnancy rate.
Topic review
Updated time: 26 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Agnieszka Podfigurna
Definition: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea in women of childbearing age. It is a reversible disorder caused by stress related to weight loss, excessive exercise and/or traumatic mental experiences. The basis of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is hormonal, based on impaired pulsatile GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus, then decreased secretion of gonadotropins, and, consequently, impaired hormonal function of the ovaries. This disorder leads to hypoestrogenism, manifested by a disturbance of the menstrual cycle in the form of amenorrhea, leading to anovulation. Prolonged state of hypoestrogenism can be very detrimental to general health, leading to many harmful short- and long-term consequences.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Simona Zaami
Definition: Fetal Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) can be accurately identified in utero and categorized by antenatal sonography and/or MRI. Infectious disease, maternal drug exposure, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, maternal trauma, coagulation disorders and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome can cause fetal ICH.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Andrea Olmos-Ortiz
Definition: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a transient condition characterized by carbohydrate intolerance, hyperglycemia, peripheral insulin resistance, insufficient insulin secretion or activity, endothelial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation during pregnancy, frequently with the first onset between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Maria Miletta
Definition: Human milk is considered the most advantageous source of nourishment for infants. Even though there is no ideal composition of human milk, it still contains a unique combination of components that contribute to brain development.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 20 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Agrita Puzuka
Definition: Infertility (defined as the inability to conceive within a year of unprotected coitus) is a global health and social issue affecting close to 15% of couples. In half of the couples seeking medical treatment for infertility, male factor infertility is identified together with abnormal semen characteristics. The focus of current clinical practice is laid on the presence of sufficient sperm count in the ejaculated specimen with adequate motility and morphology of spermatozoa capable of giving fertilization a chance (conventional semen analysis).
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 2