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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gabino Torres-Vega
Definition: We introduce finite-differences derivatives intended to be exact when applied to the real exponential function. We want to recover the known results of continuous calculus with our finite differences derivatives but in a discrete form. The purpose of this work is to have a discrete momentum operator suitable for use as an operator in discrete quantum mechanics theory.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Meishan Zhao
Definition: Goos–Hänchen effect was an important optical phenomenon. When an optical wave propagates from a denser medium to a thinner medium, the total reflection generates coherent interference. The final propagated wave yields a lateral displacement relative to the incidence wave at the interface. Even though optics has a coherent effect on the total reflection of a finite-sized wave and an acoustic wave is incoherent with a non-total reflection of different frequency components, recent research shows that there is an analog Goos–Hänchen effect in acoustics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ozlem Tastan Bishop
Definition: Understanding molecular mechanisms underlying the complexity of allosteric regulation in proteins has attracted considerable attention in drug discovery due to the benefits and versatility of allosteric modulators in providing desirable selectivity against protein targets while minimizing toxicity and other side effects. The proliferation of novel computational approaches for predicting ligand–protein interactions and binding using dynamic and network-centric perspectives has led to new insights into allosteric mechanisms and facilitated computer-based discovery of allosteric drugs. Although no absolute method of experimental and in silico allosteric drug/site discovery exists, current methods are still being improved. As such, the critical analysis and integration of established approaches into robust, reproducible, and customizable computational pipelines with experimental feedback could make allosteric drug discovery more efficient and reliable. In this article, we review computational approaches for allosteric drug discovery and discuss how these tools can be utilized to develop consensus workflows for in silico identification of allosteric sites and modulators with some applications to pathogen resistance and precision medicine. The emerging realization that allosteric modulators can exploit distinct regulatory mechanisms and can provide access to targeted modulation of protein activities could open opportunities for probing biological processes and in silico design of drug combinations with improved therapeutic indices and a broad range of activities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Arunas Ramanavicius
Definition: Amperometric biosensors and biofuel cells are mostly based on immobilized enzymes or living cells. Among the many oxidoreductases, glucose oxidase (GOx) is used mostly in biosensor design. The same GOx can be well applied for the development of biofuel cells and self-charging capacitors based on the operation of biofuel cells.
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Biography
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Anan Yaghmur
Abstract: Anan Yaghmur is associate professor at the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen. He is also serving as a referee for at least 12 prominent journals including ACS NANO & ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Soft Matter, PLoS ONE, PCCP, Chemical Communications, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, and Langmuir. In addition to the evaluation of grant applications for scientific funding bodies. Anan Yaghmur has extensive expertise and know-how in formulation and nanostructural characterization of safe and efficient drug nanocarriers based on self-assembled lyotropic liquid crystalline systems and their dispersions (cubosomes and hexosomes).
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Ke Wang
Definition: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a vital technique in which spectra are collected from both the energy and momentum of photoemitted electrons and is indispensable for investigating the electronic band structure of solids.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Meishan Zhao
Definition: The transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI media) has been the most popular model for the sedimentary rocks in the interior of the earth. These rocks are usually isotropic within a given layer but strongly anisotropic from layer to layer. Reflection and refraction of acoustic waves between the adjacent rock layers have profound implications in geophysical applications. We discuss some anomalous reflection phenomena of the acoustic wave at the interface between the layered anisotropic rock media.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Vasily R. Shaginyan
Definition: We consider the time reversal T and particle-antiparticle C symmetries that, being most fundamental, can be violated at microscopic level by a weak interaction. The notable example here is from condensed matter, where strongly correlated Fermi systems like HF metals and high-Tc superconductors (or HF compounds) exhibit C and T symmetries violation due to the so-called non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior rather than to microscopic inter-particle interaction. When a HF compound is near the topological fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), it exhibits the NFL properties, so that the C symmetry breaks down, making the differential tunneling conductivity to be an asymmetric function of the bias voltage V. This asymmetry does not take place in normal metals, where Landau Fermi liquid (LFL) theory holds. Under the application of magnetic field, a HF compound transits to the LFL state, and σ(V) becomes symmetric function of V. These findings are in good agreement with experimental observations. We suggest that the same topological FCQPT defines the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Thus, the most fundamental features of the nature are defined by its topological and symmetry properties.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Muhammad Ali BUTT
Definition: Diffraction is a phenomenon related to the wave nature of light and arises when a propagating wave comes across an obstacle. Consequently, the wave can be transformed in amplitude or phase and diffraction occurs. Those parts of the wavefront avoiding an obstacle form a diffraction pattern after interfering with each other. In this review paper, we have discussed the topic of non-diffractive beams, explicitly Bessel beams. Such beams provide some resistance to diffraction and hence are hypothetically a phenomenal alternate to Gaussian beams in several circumstances. Several outstanding applications are coined to Bessel beams and have been employed in commercial applications. We have discussed several hot applications based on these magnificent beams such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space long-distance self-healing beams, optical coherence tomography, superresolution, sharp focusing, polarization transformation, increased depth of focus, birefringence detection based on astigmatic transformed BB and encryption in optical communication. According to our knowledge, each topic presented in this entry is justifiably explained.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Dandan Sang
Definition: Boron-doped diamond (BDD) acts as an excellent p-type conductive material for high-temperature, high-power and radiation-proof photoelectronic devices with its large band gap at room temperature (5.47 eV) and high thermal conductivity.
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