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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Jose-Luis Molina
Definition: The are thousands of large dams over the globe. The importance of dams is rapidly increasing due to the impact of climate change on increasing hydrological process variability and on water planning and management need. This study tackles a review for the concrete arch-dams’ design process, from a dual sustainability/safety management approach. On one hand, Sustainability is evaluated through a design optimization for dams´ stability and deformation analysis. On the other hand, safety is directly related to the reduction and consequences of failure risk. For that, several scenarios about stability and deformation, identifying desirable and undesirable actions, were estimated. More than 100 specific parameters regarding dam-reservoir-foundation-sediments system and their interactions have been collected. Also, a summary of mathematical modelling was made, and more than 100 references were summarized. The following consecutive steps, required to design engineering (why act), maintenance (when to act) and operations activities (how to act), were evaluated: individuation of hazards, definition of failure potential and estimation of consequences (harm to people, assets and environment). Results show that the area to model the dam–foundation interaction is around 3.0 Hd2, the system-damping ratio and vibration period is 8.5% and 0.39 s. Also, maximum elastic and elasto-plastic displacements are ~0.10–0.20 m. The failure probability for stability is 34%, whereas for deformation it is 29%
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Marta Maria Sesana
Definition: According to its strategic long-term vision, Europe wants to be a climate-neutral economy by 2050 and buildings represent a sector with low-cost opportunities for high-level CO2 reduction. The main challenge is to increase the renovation rate of the existing building stock, which currently is around 1.2%/year. The ALliance for Deep RENovation (ALDREN) project developed a Holistic and reliable European Voluntary Certification Scheme to trigger deep renovation of non-residential buildings. The ALDREN approach is composed by a sum of protocols and tools with the goal of encouraging property owners to undertake renovation of existing buildings using a clear, robust, and comparable method using coherent and harmonized instruments, the so called ALDREN EPC and ALDREN Building Renovation Passport for non-residential buildings.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Ali khudhair
Definition: The evolution of the construction industry is associated with the continuous implementation of new technologies. Building Information Modelling (BIM) has revolutionised the collaboration and data sharing processes in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Abdelrahman Elbakheit
Definition: BIPVs offers tremendous potential to building designers or Architects, provided that their introduction is well considered and catered for from the very beginning of the design stages and not left afterwards. They can influence building orientation footprints, layout and form; this is apart from changing the building as well as being an important element of the environmental setting and building systems. It is important here to stress their recognition as an essential part of the energy strategy of the building and it’s functioning, since careful and proper integration of PVs with other building elements is a key factor to their success. Moreover, their high aesthetical values in terms of neat, coloured and high-tech prestigious appearance can be a corner stone for more innovative architectural designs. To ensure proper integration of PVs into the building fabric we need to point certain factors that influences Pv performance as they are integrated in a building design. As well as assessing the nature and type of loads involved. Influence of PVs on building factor is also important, since PVs are considered expensive nowadays it is fairly important to use them as optimal as possible; this remind us with the use of glazing in the middle ages, which was expensive and rare, nowadays we see them almost every where.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marek Chalecki
Definition: Striving for reduction of production costs and constraints on natural resources cause the use of waste materials as substitutes of traditional raw materials to become increasingly important. Dynamic development of sewerage systems and sewage treatment plants observed over the recent years leads to increase of mass of the produced sewage sludge. According to the Waste Law, the municipal sewage sludge can be used if it is properly stabilized, e.g., through thermal processing. This process results in significant quantities of fly ash which must be properly utilized. The description presents a brief highlight of solution of the abovementioned problem — the possibility of application of fly ash wastes as a cement substitute in the concrete manufacturing. If a predefined quantity of cement is replaced by the fly ash, then one can obtain cement composite with good strength parameters. This assumption is confirmed by the investigations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Paula M. Esquivias
Definition: The circular economy in the building sector is an approach aiming at minimizing waste and emissions, as well as closing water, energy, and material loops. Under a circular built environment, landfilling is no longer an option to handle construction and demolition waste, and design for disassembly has a central role. Design for disassembly is a concept in which buildings and products are designed intentionally for material recovery, value retention, and meaningful next use.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Definition: Historic, listed, or unlisted, buildings account for 30% of the European building stock. Since they are complex systems of cultural, architectural, and identity value, they need particular attention to ensure that they are preserved, used, and managed over time in a sustainable way. This implies a demand for retrofit solutions able to improve indoor thermal conditions while reducing the use of energy sources and preserving the heritage significance. Often, however, the choice and implementation of retrofit solutions in historic buildings is limited by socio-technical barriers (regulations, lack of knowledge on the hygrothermal behaviour of built heritage, economic viability, etc.).
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Savindi Caldera
Definition: Rapid population growth and urbanization have led to an increase in Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste, prompting government and industry bodies to develop better waste management practices. Waste trading has emerged as a targeted intervention to divert waste from landfill sites and create a second life for waste material. This paper examines key barriers and enablers influencing the creation of a marketplace for waste trading. A systematic literature review was undertaken to examine global efforts in creating a marketplace for C&D waste. A framework on enablers and barriers for developing a marketplace for C&D waste emerged from the review, based on market-based, operational, and governance factors. References demonstrated that markets for materials such as glass and metals have already been established, but there are increasing marketplace opportunities for other recycled materials. Technology-based market applications are emerging as targeted interventions to facilitate online trading, which will provide a more accessible and user-friendly marketplace for sellers and buyers. Further research should test the complex interactions between people and technology associated with online waste trading platforms, as well as help develop the business case for a C&D waste marketplace.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Fatmaelzahraa Hussein
Definition: Defensible space is the concept of creating spaces that include a series of architectural guidelines that are used when designing a new urban residential area to promote both the territorial claim of the residential groups to their surroundings and their ability to conduct natural surveillance of their spaces. Constructing safe environments with safe vocabularies for enhancing well-being is crucial for achieving quality of life in both peace and wartime. Warzone countries that suffer from many changes due to the effect of war (or fourth-generation wars) should be prepared to face those changes with safe spaces as well.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 22 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Sajal Chowdhury
Definition: The term 'domestic environmental experience' was defined as users' experiences of cognitive perceptions and physical responses to their domestic built environments. Domestic environments can be enriched through the implementation of environmental experience design (EXD) by combining users' environmental, spatial and contextual factors that may accommodate occupants' needs and demands as well as their health and wellbeing. Here, an EXD theoretical concept has been developed based on the 'User-Centred Design' thematical framework.
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