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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Nov 2020
Submitted by: G.-Fivos Sargentis
Definition: Stochastic calculus is used for the objective evaluation of the variability present in aesthetic attributes of paintings and landscapes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Malik Yousef
Definition: Integrative approaches that utilize the biological knowledge while performing feature selection are necessary for this kind of data. The main idea behind the integrative gene selection process is to generate a ranked list of genes considering both the statistical metrics that are applied to the gene expression data, and the biological background information which is provided as external datasets.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Elizabeth Chou
Definition: Categorical exploratory data analysis (CEDA) is demonstrated to provide new resolutions for two topics: multiclass classification (MCC) with one single categorical response variable and response manifold analytics (RMA) with multiple response variables.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Lorentz Jäntschi
Definition: The Chi-Square test is based on a series of assumptions frequently used in the statistical analysis of experimental data. The main weakness of the chi-square test is that is very accurate only in convergence (in large size samples), and for small sample sizes is exposed to errors of both types (type I and type II). On two scenarios of use - goodness of fit and contingencies assessment (2x2 tables of contingency) - here are discussed different aspects involving it. Further knowledge on the regard of the type of the error in contingencies assessment push further the analysis of the data, while in the same time opens the opportunity to devise a method for filling the gaps in contingencies (e.g. censored data), both scenarios being discussed here in detail. A program designed to fill the gaps in the assumption of the association is provided.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Lorentz Jäntschi
Definition: One of the pillars of experimental sciences is sampling. Based on analysis conducted on samples the estimations for the populations are made. The distributions are split in two main groups: continuous and discrete and the present study applies for the continuous ones. One of the challenges of the sampling is the accuracy of it, or, in other words how representative is the sample for the population from which was drawn. Another challenge, connected with this one, is the presence of the outliers - observations wrongly collected, not actually belonging to the population subjected to study. The present study proposes a statistic (and a test) intended to be used for any continuous distribution to detect the outliers, by constructing the confidence interval for the extreme value in the sample, at certain (preselected) risk of being in error, and depending on the sample size. The proposed statistic is operational for known distributions (having known their probability density function) and is dependent too on the statistical parameters of the population.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Rafael Lahoz-Beltra
Definition: The Gompertz function is a sigmoid curve being a special case of a logistic curve. Although it was originally designed to describe mortality, it is now used in biology. For example, it is useful to describe many phenomena such as the growth of a cancerous tumor confined to an organ without metastasis, the growth of the number of individuals in a population, e.g. prey in a Volterra-Lotka model, the germination of seeds, etc. It also models as the logistic function the growth of a colony of bacteria or in an epidemic the spread of the number of infected people. However, despite its many applications, in many cases the fitting of experimental data to the Gompertz function is not always straightforward. In this article we present a protocol that will be useful when performing the data regression to this curve using the statistical package R.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Asadullah Shaikh
Definition: Healthcare electronic records can provide both physicians and healthcare agencies to discover knowledge. This work proposes an overview of the data mining techniques used for knowledge discovery in medical records. Furthermore, based on real healthcare data, this paper also demonstrates a case study of discovering knowledge with the help of three data mining techniques: (1) association analysis; (2) sequential pattern mining; (3) clustering. Particularly, association analysis is used to extract frequent correlations among examinations done by patients with a specific disease, sequential pattern mining allows extracting frequent patterns of medical events and clustering is used to find groups of similar patients. The discovered knowledge may enrich healthcare guidelines, improve their processes and detect anomalous patients’ behavior with respect to the medical guidelines.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Michael Voskoglou
Definition: The theory of Markov chains is a smart combination of Linear Algebra and Probability theory offering ideal conditions for modelling situations depending on random variables. Markov chains have found important applications to many sectors of the human activity. In this work a finite Markov chain is introduced representing mathematically the teaching process which is based on the ideas of constructivism for learning. Interesting conclusions are derived and a measure is obtained for the teaching effectiveness. An example on teaching the derivative to fresher university students is also presented illustrating our results.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Sirong Chen
Definition: The influence of mobile technology on tourism is very significant. With the support of mobile-related devices (smartphones, glasses, or other wearable devices), technology, data and services, multiple travel concepts, and travel modes including mobile tourism, smart tourism, e-tourism, and sustainable tourism have emerged or developed further. Mobile technology is touted as the next technology wave that can fundamentally change tourism and hotels. Moreover, mobile technology is playing an increasing role in the travel experience, and increasing travel research is concentrated in this field. Research findings show that, first, the research of mobile technology in tourism can be divided into three phases and to a certain extent is synchronized with the development of mobile technology. Second, in the area of social sciences, the research of mobile technology in tourism needs further exploration, which must refer to related research in the areas of Transportation and IT to expand the perspective of research. Top journal analysis, journal co-citation analysis, author co-citation analysis, and collaboration network analysis reveal the most representative journals, authors, institutions, and countries/regions in this research field. This finding provides a valuable reference for scholars in this field. Additionally, this research also grasped the hot and cutting-edge topics in this field through the analysis of keywords in this field. Finally, the clustering of co-citation references presents the knowledge base of mobile technology research in the tourism field: mobile technology, travel mode, mobile instrument, travel behavior research, mobile applications, and geo-based technology.
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