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Updated time: 16 Feb 2021
Definition: Adenomyosis is defined as an invasion of the endometrium into the uterine myometrium, which results in an enlargement of the uterus, formation of adenomyotic tumours, profuse menstrual and inter-menstrual bleeding and recurrent pain. Microscopically ectopic nonneoplastic, endometrial glands and stroma surrounded by the hypertrophic and hyperplastic myometrium are noted. It is estrogens' dependent disease so that the hormonal treatment is the first line treatment in adenomyotic patients.
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Definition: Adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD) is dieting and breakfast skipping during adolescence and adulthood, impair development and maturation of the reproductive function (1), which induces latent progression of obstetrics and gynecologic disorders (2). Although recovery is achieved after correcting adverse eating habits (3), the reproductive function declines (4), and this leads to the latter onset of obstetrics and gynecologic diseases (5).
Updated time: 30 Dec 2020
Definition: Adipocytokines are hormonally active molecules that are believed to play a key role in the regulation of crucial biological processes in the human body.
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Preterm delivery (PTD; <37 weeks' gestation) complicates 5-13% of deliveries worldwide depending on the geographical and demographical characteristics of the population tested. Based on data from 184 countries, the global average preterm birth rate in 2010 was 11.1% giving a worldwide 14.9 million. It is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as maternal morbidity. Prematurity actually has both short and long-standing consequences for affected offspring, and can leave these individuals with lifelong disabilities, even after the available interventions are attempted. Because the prevalence of preterm birth is so high, it is thought to put more financial, medical, and emotional stress on affected communities than any other perinatal issue. In the past years most of the research interest resulted in the prevention of preterm birth in order to alleviate the complications of prematurity. However, recent evidence suggests that the effect of preterm birth goes beyond the impact on the future health of both the mother and her offspring far beyond the specific delivery in which preterm delivery has occurred.
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Definition: Understanding the factors that contribute to women’s alcohol use in pregnancy is of critical importance to women's health and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Alcohol use in pregnancy is influenced by a range of contextual and structural factors, including poverty, histories of trauma and violence, physical and mental health concerns, normalization of alcohol in social networks, sociocultural and economic vulnerabilities and disadvantage, and child welfare involvement. Therefore, beyond supporting individual change, it is necessary to address a range of structural and systemic issues through the adoption of emerging gender-, trauma-, cultural, and equity-informed interventions.
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Definition: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been reported in one-third of women worldwide at different life stages, due to the complex balance in the ecology of the vaginal microbiota. It is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge and is associated with other health issues. Since the first description of anaerobic microbes associated with BV like Gardnerella vaginalis in the 1950s, researchers have stepped up the game by incorporating advanced molecular tools to monitor and evaluate the extent of dysbiosis within the vaginal microbiome, particularly on how specific microbial population changes compared to a healthy state. Moreover, treatment failure and BV recurrence rate remain high despite the standard antibiotic treatment. Consequently, researchers have been probing into alternative or adjunct treatments, including probiotics or even vaginal microbiota transplants, to ensure successful treatment outcomes and reduce the colonization by pathogenic microbes of the female reproductive tract.
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Definition: Breast cancer metastasis is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women and is difficult to combat due to the long periods in which disseminated cells stay dormant and can be re-activated to start the relapse. Assessing the number and molecular profile of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients, especially in early breast cancer, should help in identifying the possibility of relapse in time for therapeutic intervention to prevent or delay recurrence. Molecular analysis of CTCs have a potential to define particular susceptibilities of the cells representing the current tumor burden, which may be considerably different from the cells of the primary tumor. While metastatic breast cancer is considered incurable this approach may offer more tailored therapy to the patients. In this article we inspect the routes to metastasis in breast cancer and how they can be linked to specific features of CTCs, how CTC analysis may be used in therapy, and what is the current status of the research and efforts to include CTC analysis in clinical practice.
Updated time: 16 Nov 2020
Definition: Cesarean section is a surgical procedure, which is the most frequently performed in gynecology and obstetrics. It is commonly believed that an operative delivery is a less painful and safer mode of delivery, which translates into an increasing number of the procedures performed without medical indications.The maternal sequelae of cesarean sections are well elucidated and widely discussed in the literature, while long-term neonatal consequences still remain the issue of research and scientific dispute.
Updated time: 03 Mar 2021
Definition: Caesarean sections in obese patients are associated with an increased risk of surgical wound complications, including hematomas, seromas, abscesses, dehiscence, and surgical site infections. The aim of the present study is to perform a meta-analysis and systematic review of the current literature focusing on the strategies available to decrease wound complications in this population.
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Definition: Using Raman microscopy, we investigated epithelial cervical cells collected from 96 women with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or belonging to groups I, IIa, IIID-1 and IIID-2 according to Munich III classification (IIID-1 and IIID-2 corresponding to Bethesda LSIL and HSIL groups, respectively). All women were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection using PCR. Subcellular resolution of Raman microscopy enabled to understand phenotypic differences in a heterogeneous population of cervical cells in the following groups: I/HPV−, IIa/HPV−, IIa/HPV−, LSIL/HPV−, LSIL/HPV+, HSIL/HPV−, HSIL/HPV+and cancer cells (SCC/HPV+). We showed for the first time that the glycogen content in the cytoplasm decreased with the nucleus size of cervical cells in all studied groups apart from the cancer group. For the subpopulation of large-nucleus cells HPV infection resulted in considerable glycogen depletion compared to HPV negative cells in IIa, LSIL (for both statistical significance, ca. 45%) and HSIL (trend, 37%) groups. We hypothesize that accelerated glycogenolysis in large-nucleus cells may be associated with the increased protein metabolism for HPV positive cells. Our work underlines unique capabilities of Raman microscopy in single cell studies and demonstrate potential of Raman-based methods in HPV diagnostics.