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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Maria Szubert
Definition: Adenomyosis is defined as an invasion of the endometrium into the uterine myometrium, which results in an enlargement of the uterus, formation of adenomyotic tumours, profuse menstrual and inter-menstrual bleeding and recurrent pain. Microscopically ectopic nonneoplastic, endometrial glands and stroma surrounded by the hypertrophic and hyperplastic myometrium are noted. It is estrogens' dependent disease so that the hormonal treatment is the first line treatment in adenomyotic patients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Hiroshi Fujiwara
Definition: Adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD) is dieting and breakfast skipping during adolescence and adulthood, impair development and maturation of the reproductive function (1), which induces latent progression of obstetrics and gynecologic disorders (2). Although recovery is achieved after correcting adverse eating habits (3), the reproductive function declines (4), and this leads to the latter onset of obstetrics and gynecologic diseases (5).
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Paweł Gutaj
Definition: Adipocytokines are hormonally active molecules that are believed to play a key role in the regulation of crucial biological processes in the human body.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Tomoko Nakamura
Definition: Endometriosis is a chronic condition that affects women throughout various stages of their lives by causing pain, infertility, and malignant progression.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Kwok-yin LEUNG
Definition: Over the years, there have been several improvements in ultrasound technologies including high-resolution ultrasonography, linear transducer, radiant flow, three-/ four-dimensional (3D/4D) ultrasound, speckle tracking of the fetal heart, and artificial intelligence. The aims of this entry are to evaluate the use of these advanced technologies in obstetrics in the midst of new guidelines on and new techniques of obstetric ultrasonography. In particular, whether these technologies can improve the diagnostic capability, functional analysis, workflow and ergonomics of obstetric ultrasound examinations will be discussed.
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Videos
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Preterm delivery (PTD; <37 weeks' gestation) complicates 5-13% of deliveries worldwide depending on the geographical and demographical characteristics of the population tested. Based on data from 184 countries, the global average preterm birth rate in 2010 was 11.1% giving a worldwide 14.9 million. It is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as maternal morbidity. Prematurity actually has both short and long-standing consequences for affected offspring, and can leave these individuals with lifelong disabilities, even after the available interventions are attempted. Because the prevalence of preterm birth is so high, it is thought to put more financial, medical, and emotional stress on affected communities than any other perinatal issue. In the past years most of the research interest resulted in the prevention of preterm birth in order to alleviate the complications of prematurity. However, recent evidence suggests that the effect of preterm birth goes beyond the impact on the future health of both the mother and her offspring far beyond the specific delivery in which preterm delivery has occurred.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Lindsay Wolfson
Definition: Understanding the factors that contribute to women’s alcohol use in pregnancy is of critical importance to women's health and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Alcohol use in pregnancy is influenced by a range of contextual and structural factors, including poverty, histories of trauma and violence, physical and mental health concerns, normalization of alcohol in social networks, sociocultural and economic vulnerabilities and disadvantage, and child welfare involvement. Therefore, beyond supporting individual change, it is necessary to address a range of structural and systemic issues through the adoption of emerging gender-, trauma-, cultural, and equity-informed interventions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Learn-Han Lee
Definition: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been reported in one-third of women worldwide at different life stages, due to the complex balance in the ecology of the vaginal microbiota. It is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge and is associated with other health issues. Since the first description of anaerobic microbes associated with BV like Gardnerella vaginalis in the 1950s, researchers have stepped up the game by incorporating advanced molecular tools to monitor and evaluate the extent of dysbiosis within the vaginal microbiome, particularly on how specific microbial population changes compared to a healthy state. Moreover, treatment failure and BV recurrence rate remain high despite the standard antibiotic treatment. Consequently, researchers have been probing into alternative or adjunct treatments, including probiotics or even vaginal microbiota transplants, to ensure successful treatment outcomes and reduce the colonization by pathogenic microbes of the female reproductive tract.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Ewa Grzybowska
Definition: Breast cancer metastasis is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women and is difficult to combat due to the long periods in which disseminated cells stay dormant and can be re-activated to start the relapse. Assessing the number and molecular profile of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients, especially in early breast cancer, should help in identifying the possibility of relapse in time for therapeutic intervention to prevent or delay recurrence. Molecular analysis of CTCs have a potential to define particular susceptibilities of the cells representing the current tumor burden, which may be considerably different from the cells of the primary tumor. While metastatic breast cancer is considered incurable this approach may off er more tailored therapy to the patients. In this article we inspect the routes to metastasis in breast cancer and how they can be linked to specific features of CTCs, how CTC analysis may be used in therapy, and what is the current status of the research and efforts to include CTC analysis in clinical practice.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Definition: Cesarean section is a surgical procedure, which is the most frequently performed in gynecology and obstetrics. It is commonly believed that an operative delivery is a less painful and safer mode of delivery, which translates into an increasing number of the procedures performed without medical indications.The maternal sequelae of cesarean sections are well elucidated and widely discussed in the literature, while long-term neonatal consequences still remain the issue of research and scientific dispute.
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