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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Fabienne Jordana
Definition: The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mika Salmi
Definition: Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mladen Korbelik
Definition: Anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a unique oxidative stress-based modality that has proven highly effective on a variety of solid malignancies. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has a critical role in the therapeutic outcome of this modality.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Xiao-Chuan Fan
Definition: In order to determine the correlation between the inclination of articular eminence (AEI) and the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), a systematic review was performed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gianrico Spagnuolo
Definition: Over 65 components detected in oral fluid have been examined as possible markers for the progression of periodontitis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Soo-min Ok
Definition: Candida species are common global opportunistic pathogens that could repeatedly and chronically cause oral mucosa infection and create an inflammatory environment, leading to organ dysfunction. Oral Candida infections may cause temporary or permanent damage to salivary glands, resulting in the destruction of acinar cells and the formation of scar tissue. Restricted function of the salivary glands leads to discomfort and diseases of the oral mucosa, such as dry mouth and associated infection.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Marc Le Borgne
Definition: Co–Cr dental alloys consist of Co, Cr and also other metals (e.g., gallium, iron, molybdenum, nickel, ruthenium, tungsten). Since the 1990s, regulations have emerged to protect European patients and also monitor recent scientific knowledge. The use of metals and, therefore, dental alloys has been highly regulated by directives and regulations. Europe has, therefore, developed a regulatory package to protect all players involved in alloys, whether they are metal producers, manufacturers of alloys and medical devices, healthcare professionals and patients. Objective information is provided about Co–Cr dental alloys, with regard to both the latest toxicological data and regulatory developments from 2020–2025. The release of metal ions and the problem of wear particles are also discussed. With the recent change of regulatory status of Co, it is necessary to know the many repercussions (economic, technical etc.) of their use precisely in order to then allow actors to modify their daily work. The legislative changes also bring the need to propose new alternatives to Co-Cr dental alloys.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Sophie Jung
Definition: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, whose first case was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. In January 2021, the pandemic is still ongoing and is getting worse [1]. Dental surgery is considered to be a profession at high risk for being infected, and therefore transmitting SARS-CoV-2. Our professional practice was disrupted by lockdowns, resulting in reduced activity, new dental protocols and additional costs for staff protective equipment. This has caused unexpected financial difficulties for many dental practitioners. Even with treatments or vaccines, our professional practice will probably never revert back to the previous situation, as the new constraints may become permanent.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Dong-Wook Han
Definition: Surface functionalization with carbon nanomaterials in dental and orthopedic implants has emerged as a novel strategy for reinforcement and as a bioactive cue due to their potential for osseointegration.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Dec 2020
Definition: In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary to practice all possible measures in the clinical practice that prevents disease transmission. Dentistry bears a higher risk of cross-contamination as it deals with saliva- a potent disease-transmitting agent. Dental radiology setup is no exception, as saliva contamination is equally present here. We should undertake the following measures in order to have a safe working environment: 1. Strict adherence to routine infection control measures. 2. Preference should be given to the extra-oral projection techniques. 3. Ensure proper ventilation of the operator room. 4. Dooning and doffing of the PPE in a separate room. 5. Proper disinfection and implementation of fallout period.6. Preferably digital radiography and tele-radiography
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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