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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Mar 2021
Definition: Biomimicry can be defined as the branch of science for developing technology by mimicking nature, where forms and structures of creatures are the basic sources of inspiration to come up with optimized design solutions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Aug 2020
Submitted by: José Vega-Baudrit
Definition: Life cycle system of second-generation ethanol production from rachis of banana.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Carbon-based Quantum dots (C-QDs) are carbon-based materials that experience the quantum confinement effect, which results in superior optoelectronic properties. In recent years, C-QDs have attracted attention significantly and have shown great application potential as a high-performance supercapacitor device. C-QDs (either as a bare electrode or composite) give a new way to boost supercapacitor performances in higher specific capacitance, high energy density, and good durability. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date progress in C-QD applications either in a bare condition or as a composite with other materials for supercapacitors. The current state of the three distinct C-QD families used for supercapacitors including carbon quantum dots, carbon dots, and graphene quantum dots is highlighted.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Valentijn De Coster
Definition: Supported nanoparticles are commonly applied in heterogeneous catalysis. The catalytic performance of these solid catalysts is, for a given support, dependent on the nanoparticle size, shape, and composition, thus necessitating synthesis techniques that allow for preparing these materials with fine control over those properties. Such control can be exploited to deconvolute their effects on the catalyst’s performance, which is the basis for knowledge-driven catalyst design. In this regard, bottom-up synthesis procedures based on colloidal chemistry have proven successful in achieving the desired level of control for a variety of fundamental studies. This article aims to give an overview of recent progress made in this synthesis technique for the application of controlled catalytic materials in gas-phase catalysis. The focus goes to mono- and bimetallic materials, as well as to recent efforts in enhancing their performance by embedding colloidal templates in porous oxide phases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 May 2021
Submitted by: Thyago Nepomuceno
Definition: The first Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (1978) under the assumption of a Constant Returns to Scale production technology, i.e., when an increase in the production resources results in a proportional increase in the output.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Volodymyr Gnatyuk
Definition: Different contact materials and optimization of techniques of their depositions expand the possibilities to obtain high performance room temperature CdTe-based X/γ-ray detectors. The heterostructures with ohmic (MoOx) and Schottky (MoOx, TiOx, TiN, and In) contacts, created by DC reactive magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, as well as In/CdTe/Au diodes with a p-n junction, formed by laser-induced doping, have been developed and investigated. Depending on the surface pre-treatment of semi-insulating p-CdTe crystals, the deposition of a MoOx film formed either ohmic or Schottky contacts. Based on the calculations and I-V characteristics of the Mo-MoOx/p-CdTe/MoOx-Mo, In/p-CdTe/MoOx-Mo, Ti-TiOx/p-CdTe/MoOx-Mo, and Ti-TiN/p-CdTe/MoOx-Mo Schottky-diode detectors, the current transport processes were described in the models of the carrier generation–recombination within the space-charge region (SCR) at low bias, and space-charge limited current incorporating the Poole–Frenkel effect at higher voltages, respectively. The energies of generation–recombination centers, density of trapping centers, and effective carrier lifetimes were determined. Nanosecond laser irradiation of the In electrode, pre-deposited on the p-CdTe crystals, resulted in extending the voltage range, corresponding to the carrier generation–recombination in the SCR in the I-V characteristics of the In/CdTe/Au diodes. Such In/CdTe/Au p-n junction diode detectors demonstrated high energy resolutions (7%@59.5 keV, 4%@122 keV, and 1.6%@662 keV).
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Others
Updated time: 07 Nov 2020
Submitted by: JAYDIP DATTA
Abstract: The mankind of 2020 century are facing a treamendous challange against Covid19 / SARS-COV-2 infection . Widespread viral stunt of spreading followed by death are encasulating the whole world including China , U.S , Brazil , Africa , U.K , USSR , Middle East and finally India . On the pandemic face of Corona Virus Chemical Engineers are having many scopes to serve the following areas of specialisations . 1. SAFETY , HEALTH , ENVIRONMENT ( SHE & Public Health ) 2. Molecuar Simulation of newer antivirals with the help of Engineering Mathemations as well as Computation . 3. Emergency Planning including Personnel Protective Equipments ( PPE ) , Health Statistics Record . 4. Scope to scale-up the vaccine production 5. Global economic crunch associated with Crude oil crisis during this pandemic .
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Hyun-Seog Roh
Definition: Co-CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by the different methods to derive the optimal synthetic method and to investigate the effect of the preparation method on the physicochemical characteristics of Co-CeO2 catalysts in the high-temperature water-gas shift (HTS) reaction. Co-CeO2 catalyst synthesized by a sol-gel method features the strong metal to support interaction and the largest amount of oxygen vacancies compared to other catalysts, which affects the catalytic activity. As a result, Co-CeO2 catalyst synthesized by the sol-gel method exhibited the highest WGS activity among the prepared catalysts, even in the severe conditions (high CO concentration: ~38% in dry basis and high gas hourly space velocity: 143,000 h−1).
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Philippe Reynier
Definition: The entry emphasizes on VUV and IR radiation, since recent experimental efforts has been devoted to these wavelength ranges since they contribute mostly to CO2 plasma radiation. The main objective of the study is to identify the most attractive datasets for future crosscheck comparisons with the results obtained during future test campaigns with ESTHER shock-tube.
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Videos
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Submitted by: SeongKi Kim
Finding collision-free paths for crowd simulation has been a core technique in video games and the film industry; it has drawn a great deal of attention from computer animation researchers for several decades. Additionally, theoretical modeling of pedestrian has been a hot topic in physics as well because it allows us to predict any architectural failure of buildings and many city planning problems. However, the existing studies for path planning cannot guarantee the arrival order, which is critical in many cases, such as arrival symmetry of the characters within video games or films. To resolve this issue, a path planning algorithm has been developed with a novel method for satisfying the arrival-order constraints. The time constraint we suggest is the temporal duration for each character, specifying the order in which they arrive at their target positions. In addition to the algorithm that guarantees the arrival order of objects, a new user interface is suggested for setting up the arrival order. Through several experiments, the proposed algorithm was verified, and can successfully find collision-free paths, while satisfying the time constraint set by the new user interface. Given the available literature, the suggested algorithm and the interface are the first that support arrival order, and their usability is proven by user studies.
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