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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Tiaan Du Plessis
Definition: Hand exoskeletons are still an active research field due to challenges that engineers face and are trying to solve. Each hand exoskeleton has certain requirements to fulfil to achieve their aims.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Antonio Correia
Definition: This experimental work assessed the efficiency of different additives (MWCNTs, montmorillonite and Portland cement) to immobilize the heavy metals lead, cooper, nickel and zinc in a soil in conditions similar to a real case scenario (percolation tests).
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Daniela Isola
Definition: Biological growth represents one of the main threats to the conservation of subterranean cultural heritage. The knowledge of the conditions which favor the various taxonomic groups is important in design their control methods. Combining our experience regarding hypogea in Italy and the Republic of Korea, we aim to perform a critical review and comparison of the Biodeterioration Patterns (BPs) found, the materials used, and the conservative treatments applied. For this purpose, we focused on Etruscan tombs (Italy, 7th to 3th century BC) and the ancient tombs of the Baekje Dynasty (Republic of Korea, 6th to 7th centuries AD), most of which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites, collecting original and bibliographic data as well as institutional documents. Results highlight the rich biodiversity of the bacterial and fungal species. Phototrophs were observed only in niches with sufficient light and the development of roots was also detected. Changes in humidity and temperature, the nature of the soil, nutrient accumulation, and vegetation above the hypogea along with human activities explain the different BPs. The effects of biocide treatments are also discussed, such as the emergence of dangerous fungal species. The shared data also enhance the role of overlaying tumuli and vegetation as well as protective barriers to reduce biological risk.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jan 2021
Definition: Anodizing is an electrochemical process by which the thickness of the natural oxide layer present on metals is increased. Anodizing is used to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the substrate, to enhance the adhesion of coatings and for aesthetics reasons. The properties, chemistry and morphology of the resulting anodic oxide film depend on the anodizing parameters chosen.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Raquel P. F. Guiné
Definition: Fermentation is a process of transforming one substance into another, carried out by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, under certain circumstances, and which can occur under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Jun 2021
Definition: A maturity model is a widely used tool in software engineering and has mostly been extended to domains such as education, health, energy, finance, government, and general use. It is valuable for evaluations and continuous improvement of business processes or certain aspects of organizations, as it represents a more organized and systematic way of doing business. We present a Systematic Literature Review study of the elements and purposes of the maturity models applied to universities. Obtaining results that show the intention to evaluating the maturity of only some areas of the universities and not the whole, creating some gaps that do not allow to measure the desired level. It also shows how information technologies help its implementation in the field.
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Biography
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Art Ragauskas
Abstract: Arthur Ragauskas held the first Fulbright Chair in Alternative Energy and is a Fellow of American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Academy of Wood Science and TAPPI.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Bicycle Sharing Systems (BSSs) are a novel transport mode that benefits from the new sharing economy. BSSs provide flexible mobility services to users who can rent or borrow a bicycle to move around the city in a cheap, healthy, and environmentally friendly way.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Thony Huera-Lucero
Definition: As is it known, soil is the basis of all activity in which man is involved. At the same time, it is the key factor for the development of the life and biodiversity of the planet's flora and fauna. Hence, as result of global warming and climate change, ecological research has recently increased its importance on the bases that extensive forest areas, act as carbon sinks mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. But no less important for investigation should be to inquire under this plant cover. Because there is a totally unimaginable and diverse world that remains in constant interactions to keep alive and from the green covering habitat to the diverse forms from small mammals to man. Man in its early days learned to manage the soil with the aim of producing food. Afterwards the exponential growth of the population was produced, and a high demand for food, caused the expansion of livestock borders, caused the devastation of large areas of forests, and generated a great impact to the soil and ecosystem. As a result, the change in land use and the application of chemicals impoverished and impairs the soil and the life that inhabits it. This is why this work highlights the importance of the biological component of soil to the context of the Amazon of Ecuador. For this reason, is important to consider different organisms as Essential Indicators of Soil Quality, mainly for the tropical soil field. In order to reach this objective, we compiled information presenting it in tables. They facilitate the interpretation of the importance of species of organisms and parameters from a biological point of view. At the same time, they can be used as a theoretical basis for the development of projects and research aimed to the management of biological soil composites.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Mar 2021
Definition: Biomimicry can be defined as the branch of science for developing technology by mimicking nature, where forms and structures of creatures are the basic sources of inspiration to come up with optimized design solutions.
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