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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Hui Min Neoh
Definition: The 16S rRNA gene is highly conserved in all bacteria (and also archaea). Nonetheless, it contains nine hypervariable regions (V1 - V9), where sequences of these regions can be used to identify and discriminate bacterial genus, sometimes until the species level. This makes the gene a useful tool for phylogenetic studies. With the introduction of next-generation sequencing technologies, 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing (16SNGS) has allowed profiling of bacterial communities found in organisms and the environment, and lead to the discovery of many previously unculturable members of the bacteria kingdom.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ilaria Roato
Definition: Every year, approximately a couple of million bone grafts are performed worldwide to treat bone lesions, of which about 1 million only in Europe, thus bone regeneration is necessary to replace the damaged tissue, while the improvement of bone healing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is mandatory. Bone tissue is constituted by cells with functions carefully coordinated, and a complex cross-talk between bone forming and inflammatory cells is known to guide successful regeneration, thus repairing bone is not an easy task. Autografts are still considered the gold standard for repairing bone defects, although they are not without significant drawbacks, such as donor site availability and possible morbidity. To overcome the pitfalls of grafts, researchers relied on bone tissue engineering (BTE) and 3D bioprinting techniques to produce cell-laden scaffolds, in which bone biological components are assembled to form a 3D environment. Several techniques of bone bioprinting have been developed: inkjet, extrusion and light-based 3D printers, which use different bioinks, i.e., the printing materials.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Soon Hee Kim
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Arianna Tovar
Definition: Blood derived products have become a valuable source of tissue for the treatment of ocular surface diseases that are refractory to conventional treatments. These can be obtained from autologous or allogeneic sources (patient’s own blood or from healthy adult donors/umbilical cord blood, respectively). Allogeneic cord blood demonstrates practical advantages over alternatives and these advantages will be discussed herein. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) can be divided, generally speaking, into two distinct products: first, mononuclear cells, which can be used in regenerative ophthalmology, and second, the plasma/serum (an acellular fraction), which may be used in the form of eyedrops administered directly to the damaged ocular surface. The rationale for using umbilical cord serum (UCS) to treat ocular surface diseases such as severe dry eye syndrome (DES), persistent epithelial defects (PED), recurrent epithelial erosions, ocular chemical burns, graft versus host disease (GVHD), among others, is the considerably high concentration of growth factors and cytokines, mimicking the natural healing properties of human tears. Allogeneic serum also offers the opportunity for therapeutic treatment to patients who, due to poor heath, cannot provide autologous serum. The mechanism of action involves the stimulation of endogenous cellular proliferation, differentiation and maturation, which is highly efficient in promoting and enhancing corneal epithelial healing where other therapies have previously failed.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Daniel Sullivan
Definition: Achilles Tendinopathy is characterized by pain, swelling, and limited function of the tendon, and may include calcification or ossification. Regardless of the specific pattern, several terms are used to describe calcification/ossification within or surrounding the Achilles Tendon, including Heterotopic Ossification of the Achilles Tendon, Calcifying Tendonitis, Ossified Tendonitis, Calcific Periarthritis, and Apatite Deposition. In contrast to Calcific Tendinitis, Ossific Tendinitis microscopic examination reveals one or more segments of mature lamellar bone formation within the substance of the tendon, either at the insertion or within the body of the tendon.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: The anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL) is able to heal and subsequently restabilize the knee.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Dec 2020
Definition: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces a clinical syndrome usually associated with hearing loss. However, the effect of acquired CVM infection in adults and children has not been clearly defined.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Definition: Acrylic bone cements (ABC) are widely used in orthopedics for joint fixation, antibiotic release, and bone defect filling, among others. Most of the commercial ABCs available today consist of two components, one solid, based mainly on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and one liquid, based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), which are mixed and, through the polymerization reaction of the monomer, transformed into a hardened cement paste.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Nadežda Petejová
Definition: Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Further, some essential antimicrobial treatment drugs are themselves nephrotoxic. For this reason, timely diagnosis and adequate therapeutic management are paramount. Of potential acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers, non-protein-coding RNAs are a subject of ongoing research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Feb 2021
Definition: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an acute loss of renal function. In clinical practice, AKI is defined by an elevation of creatinine plasma concentration above ≥0.3 mg/dL in the first 48 h, an urine volume below 0.5 mL/kg/h for 6 h, or an 1.5 fold increase in serum creatinine as compared with the baseline values.
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