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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Ram Ray
Definition: The agricultural industry is getting more data-centric and requires precise, more advanced data and technologies than before, despite being familiar with agricultural processes. The agriculture industry is being advanced in generating database by various information and advanced communication technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT).
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Le Yu
Definition: Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud computing platform that was launched by Google in 2010. Since then, GEE has demonstrated its capacity of preprocessing and mining of geographic big data. GEE enables cloud computation and is an effective tool for carrying out the analysis of global geospatial big data.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Others
Updated time: 29 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Saman Ghaffarian
Abstract: Machine learning, particularly deep learning (DL), has become a central and state-of-the-art method for several computer vision applications and remote sensing (RS) image processing. Researchers are continually trying to improve the performance of the DL methods by developing new architectural designs of the networks and/or developing new techniques, such as attention mechanisms. Since the attention mechanism has been proposed, regardless of its type, it has been increasingly used for diverse RS applications to improve the performances of the existing DL methods.
Entry Collection : Remote Sensing Data Fusion
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Cheng Liu
Definition: Compared to the BeiDou regional navigation satellite system (BDS-2), the BeiDou global navigation satellite system (BDS-3) carried out a brand new integrity concept design and construction work, which defines and achieves the integrity functions for major civil open services (OS) signals such as B1C, B2a, and B1I. The integrity definition and calculation method of BDS-3 are introduced. The fault tree model for satellite signal-in-space (SIS) is used, to decompose and obtain the integrity risk bottom events. In response to the weakness in the space and ground segments of the system, a variety of integrity monitoring measures have been taken. On this basis, the design values for the new B1C/B2a signal and the original B1I signal are proposed, which are 0.9 × 10−5 and 0.8 × 10−5, respectively. The hybrid alarming mechanism of BDS-3, which has both the ground alarming approach and the satellite alarming approach, is explained. At last, an integrity risk analysis and verification work were carried out using the operating data of the system in 2019. The results show that the actual operation of the system is consistent with the conceptual design, which satisfies the integrity performance promised by BDS-3 in the ICAO SAPRs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Kunjun Tian
Definition: The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite provides time-varying gravity field models that can detect total water storage change (TWSC) from April 2002 to June 2017, and its second-generation satellite, GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO), provides models from June 2018, so there is a one year gap. Swarm satellites are equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, which can be used to recover the Earth’s time-varying gravitational field. Swarm’s time-varying gravitational field models (from December 2013 to June 2018) were solved by the International Combination Service for Time-variable Gravity Field Solutions (COST-G) and the Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (ASI). On a timely scale, Swarm has the potential to fill the gap between the two generations of GRACE satellites.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Hoang Thanh Van
Definition: The early-warning model for flash floods is based on a hydrological and geomorphological concept connected to the river basin, with the principle that flash floods will only occur where there is a high potential risk and when rainfall exceeds the threshold. In the model used to build flash-floods risk maps, the parameters of the basin are analyzed and evaluated and the weight is determined using Thomas Saaty’s analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The flash-floods early-warning software is built using open source programming tools. With the spatial module and online processing, a predicted precipitation of one to six days in advance for iMETOS (AgriMedia—Vietnam) automatic meteorological stations is interpolated and then processed with the potential risk maps (iMETOS is a weather-environment monitoring system comprising a wide range of equipment and an online platform and can be used in various fields such as agriculture, tourism and services). The results determine the locations of flash floods at several risk levels corresponding to the predicted rainfall values at the meteorological stations. The system was constructed and applied to flash floods disaster early warning for Thuan Chau in Son La province when the rainfall exceeded the 150 mm/d threshold. The system initially supported positive decision-making to prevent and minimize damage caused by flash floods.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Yongze Song
Definition: Infrastructure is a fundamental sector for sustainable development and Earth observation has great potentials for sustainable infrastructure development (SID). However, implementations of the timely, large–scale and multi–source Earth observation are still limited in satisfying the huge global requirements of SID. This review demonstrates that Earth observation has great potentials for sustainable infrastructure development. EOSI can benefit about 85% of infrastructure influenced SDGs and 61% of all SDGs, but Earth observation has been implemented in only 15% of infrastructure influenced SDG targets, and 70% of the infrastructure influenced targets that can be directly or indirectly derived from Earth observation data have not been included in current SDG indicators.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jan 2021
Submitted by: CEZARY KOWALCZYK
Definition: Geographic information systems (GIS) are composed of software, hardware, data, administrators, and methods for processing and analyzing data. Creating and sharing spatial data in digital form is not only good practice but is also regulated by specific legal acts. Currently created in map portals and the widely available General Geographic Object Databases offer a reliable, current, and continuous source of spatial information for the entire country, extremely helpful in the planning process at various levels of generalization. The database implemented into the Spatial Information System is its most important element and should constitute a complete and reliable representation of elements of the real world. GIS systems allow us to formulate models in a structured and formal way to reflect both the current situation and forecast changes that will occur in space when certain conditions are met. The proposed methodology can be used in practical applications:• Preparing planning studies, both regarding spatial policy and local law, as well as in economic planning and shaping the structure of rural space (structure of ownership and structure of use).• The development of thematic spatial information systems related to planning studies and works shaping the rural space.• Reports submitted to EU authorities relating to the utilization of funds dedicated to rural development in the multiannual financial framework and modification of the implemented actions.• The use of renewable energy sources to improve Poland’s energy security.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Dorijan Radočaj
Definition: The application of global open data remote sensing satellite missions is in the state of rapid growth, ensuring an observation with high spatial and spectral resolution over large areas. Multispectral (Landsat, Sentinel-2, and MODIS), radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation model missions (SRTM, ASTER) were analyzed, as the most often used global open data satellite missions, according to the number of scientific research articles published in Web of Science database. Processing methods of these missions’ data consisting of image preprocessing, spectral indices, image classification methods, and modelling of terrain topographic parameters were analyzed and demonstrated. Possibilities of their application in land cover, land suitability, vegetation monitoring, and natural disaster management were evaluated, having high potential in broad use worldwide. Availability of free and complementary satellite missions, as well as the open-source software, ensures the basis of effective and sustainable land use management, with the prerequisite of the more extensive knowledge and expertise gathering at a global scale.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Le Yu
Definition: Released in 2005 by Google, Google Earth (GE) has become the most popular and successful virtual globe tool. GE has demonstrated its capacity for 3D global representation and visualization of geospatial data from local to global scales.
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