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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Julia Sowińska-Heim
Definition: Significant architectural and historical monuments become an important point of reference for the local population, increasing their sense of security, and act as a factor shaping social identity. An effort to preserve relevant objects in a city is therefore important both for retaining its unique features and for strengthening the local community. A significant role plays here the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage, which allows for the preservation of architectural objects that are important to the local community, promoting the integrity and historical continuity of the city while restoring the objects’ functional and economic value. The introduction of a new function in architectural heritage is not only an important impulse for the tangible regeneration of urban tissue, but can also help to reconstruct the image and identity of a city. The local cultural and architectural heritage plays a significant role in the process leading to the creation of positive references and elimination of negative connotations related to an economic or social crisis. These remain an important part of the history of a city and, at the same time, its significance may be reimagined and shown in a new context, that relates to the present day. As a result, artefacts of the past gain new meanings, which are subject to a different, contemporary interpretation through the prism of current needs and ideas. Objects or even groups of objects from the past are being consciously taken into consideration in the activities currently undertaken. The contemporary scale of the phenomenon and complexity of the issues concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage are a consequence of the multi-faceted transformations that have taken place in recent decades in the social, cultural and economic spheres, and, consequently, the contemporary understanding of the role and significance of the architectural heritage.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Davide Del Curto
Definition: Aerogel has entered the construction field in the last two decades as a component of many insulation products, due to its high thermal performance. Aerogel-based plasters allow the matching of high thermal performance and limited thickness. This makes them suitable when retrofitting an existing building and also when restoring a heritage building. This entry presents the state of the art of the research on aerogel-based plasters as a part of the aerogel-products for the building sector.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Tsung-Chih Hsiao
Definition: The deeper the combination of art and technology, the more extensive the cooperation between artists and technologists. In many cases, the creation of New Media Art requires the cooperation of artists and technologists. However, since New Media Art is an emerging art form, the process of cocreating New Media Art between the two is at the exploration stage. Especially in areas with underdeveloped New Media Art and underdeveloped technology, there exist many problems in the cooperation between the two, such as a lack of complete understanding of the factors involved in the cooperation process and a lack of reasonable planning for the cooperation process.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Raffaela Giovagnoli
Definition: Personal autonomy is a crucial philosophical topic which is of great relevance for different disciplines. First I would present an introduction to the contemporary debate. Second,I’ll follow a line of thought that suggests to intend "personal autonomy" in a social sense. The urgency to undertake this move arises because of the wide variety of informational sources we are exposed which influence our behavior. Social background represents the basis for autonomy; at the same time, interaction with others (real or virtual) enlarges the possibility for autonomous judgements.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Paula M. Esquivias
Definition: The circular economy in the building sector is an approach aiming at minimizing waste and emissions, as well as closing water, energy, and material loops. Under a circular built environment, landfilling is no longer an option to handle construction and demolition waste, and design for disassembly has a central role. Design for disassembly is a concept in which buildings and products are designed intentionally for material recovery, value retention, and meaningful next use.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ho Manh Toan
Definition: This entry provides the conceptual development of “cultural additivity.” It reviews the three most relevant concepts namely syncretism, cultural hybridity, and creolization, and then makes a case for the usefulness of “cultural additivity” in explaining the adoption and rejection of emerging cultural values. The newly introduced concept utilizes a well-developed mechanism for multi-filtering information called mindsponge mechanism.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Fatmaelzahraa Hussein
Definition: Historic urban landscapes (HULs) are composed of layers of imbedded tangible and intangible features such as cultural memories. As the collective memories of city inhabitants, cultural memories can affect elements of social sustainability such as health, well-being, community identity, place perception and social engagement. This topic review points to the value of recalling cultural memory features in HULs, which can be used to achieve social sustainability. In addition, it contributes to sustainable development through the contribution of cultural memory and its influence on the formation of place identity, sense of place, civic pride and quality of life in HULs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Jessica K Breadsell
Definition: Urbanization is a defining feature of the modern age, yet the current model of urban development profoundly alters the natural environment, often reducing biodiversity and ultimately threatening human wellbeing. An ecologically based urban planning and design paradigm should consider a more harmonious relationship. Through a systematic literature review of 57 papers, this research identified relevant concepts and theories that could underpin this new paradigm. It revealed a noticeable increase in academic interest in this subject since 2013 and the development of concepts and theories that reflect a more holistic socio-ecological systems approach to urban planning and design based on a transdisciplinary integration and synthesis of research. Seven main themes underpin the academic literature: ecosystem services, socio-ecological systems, resilience, biodiversity, landscape, green infrastructure, as well as integrated and holistic approaches. Six of these can be organised into either a sustainability stream or a spatial stream, representing the foundations of a potential new ecological urban planning and design paradigm that applies sustainability-related concepts in a spatial setting. The final theme, integrated and holistic, includes concepts that reflect the fundamental characteristics of this new paradigm, which can be termed ‘urban consonance’
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Biography
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Shu-Kun Lin
Abstract: Encyclopedia (ISSN 2309-3366) is a multidisciplinary open access journal that records high-quality entries in encyclopedia format in all research fields. All submitted entries should be peer reviewed before publication online.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mirko Vagnoni
Definition: Frederick III of Aragon, King of Sicily (1296–1337). Frederick III of Aragon was the third king of the Aragonese dynasty on the throne of Sicily. He ruled from 1296 to 1337 and he was the only Aragonese king of Sicily who made a significant use of his image. In particular, we have four official (namely, commissioned directly by him or his entourage) representations of him: the royal seal, the billon silver denaro coin, the lost mosaic from the Church of Santa Maria della Valle (known as Badiazza) near Messina, and the mosaic in the Cathedral of Messina.
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