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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michael McAleer
Definition: Many academics are critical of the current publishing system, but it is difficult to create a better alternative. The perspective relates to the sciences and social sciences, and discusses the primary purpose of academic journals as providing a seal of approval for perceived quality, impact, significance, and importance. The key issues considered include the role of anonymous refereeing, continuous rather than discrete frequency of publications, avoidance of time wasting, and seeking adventure. Here we give recommendations about the organization of journal articles, the roles of associate editors and referees, measuring the time frame for refereeing submitted articles in days and weeks rather than months and years, encouraging open access internet publishing, emphasizing the continuity of publishing online, academic publishing as a continuous dynamic process, and how to improve research after publication. Citations and functions thereof, such as the journal impact factor and h-index are the benchmark for evaluating the importance and impact of academic journals and published articles. Even in the very top journals, a high proportion of published articles is never cited, not even by the authors themselves. Top journal publications do not guarantee that published articles will make significant contributions, or that they will ever be highly cited. The COVID-19 world should encourage academics worldwide not only to rethink academic teaching, but also to re-evaluate key issues associated with academic journal publishing in the future.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Julia Sowińska-Heim
Definition: Significant architectural and historical monuments become an important point of reference for the local population, increasing their sense of security, and act as a factor shaping social identity. An effort to preserve relevant objects in a city is therefore important both for retaining its unique features and for strengthening the local community. A significant role plays here the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage, which allows for the preservation of architectural objects that are important to the local community, promoting the integrity and historical continuity of the city while restoring the objects’ functional and economic value. The introduction of a new function in architectural heritage is not only an important impulse for the tangible regeneration of urban tissue, but can also help to reconstruct the image and identity of a city. The local cultural and architectural heritage plays a significant role in the process leading to the creation of positive references and elimination of negative connotations related to an economic or social crisis. These remain an important part of the history of a city and, at the same time, its significance may be reimagined and shown in a new context, that relates to the present day. As a result, artefacts of the past gain new meanings, which are subject to a different, contemporary interpretation through the prism of current needs and ideas. Objects or even groups of objects from the past are being consciously taken into consideration in the activities currently undertaken. The contemporary scale of the phenomenon and complexity of the issues concerning the adaptive reuse of architectural heritage are a consequence of the multi-faceted transformations that have taken place in recent decades in the social, cultural and economic spheres, and, consequently, the contemporary understanding of the role and significance of the architectural heritage.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: STAVROS PONIS
Definition: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Others
Updated time: 13 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Ille Gebeshuber
Abstract: The first aircraft at the beginning of the 20th century had too weak engines to carry passengers. Air travel that time mainly took place in large airships. The first commercial flight took place on January 1st, 1914, across Tampa Bay, Florida, with one paying passenger. The first regular passenger air transport took place in Germany, between Berlin and Weimar, from 1919. The 1920s brought fast growth of passenger aviation. In 1932, the first serial production of aircraft for passenger air travel started. However, at that time, transatlantic passenger flights were still only performed by airships. Jet aircraft replaced propeller aircraft in the 1950s. Now there are eight million commercial flights every year (status: June 2011). The crew of an airplane consists of the captain, the first, second and third officer, the flight attendants, the flight engineer, the loadmaster, the pilot and the purser. About eight million people fly every day, yielding 3.1 billion passengers in air travel in 2013. Besides people and their luggage, cargo is transported, about 140,000 tons every day, which is equivalent to 50 million tons per year. There are nearly 60 million jobs in air travel; the global turnover of the airline industry is more than 700 billion USD, with about 2.6% net profit. International aviation reached a new record in 2010 with more than 30.5 million commercial flights. 35% of the total departures in 2010 took place in North America, 25% in Asia, 24% in Europe, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 3% in Oceania and 3% in Africa. Fastest growth is in Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East. Until 2030, an increase of the number of commercial flights to 52 million is estimated.
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Others
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Simon Grima
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose: The objectives of this study were to analyse certain aspects of the Board composition of Maltese listed companies (MLCs), namely Board size, independence, expertise, gender diversity and the chairperson/CEO links, and how these may be improved. Design/Approach/Methodology: The study was designed around a qualitative approach of data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen participants, consisting of fourteen company secretaries of MLCs, a representative of the Maltese regulator, a corporate advisor and a corporate lawyer. Findings: The nomination and appointment process of directors in MLCs relies mainly on networking, with a tendency to continuously appoint the same tried network of directors. This creates a barrier towards new talent being introduced into boardrooms. A general disagreement also persists as to what constitutes a truly independent Board member. Practical Implications: Practical experience often supplants academic qualifications when nominating and appointing directors. Moreover, female representation on the Boards of MLCs is still lacking. Notwithstanding the fact that the importance of having separate chairperson/CEO roles is acknowledged, there is likely to be strong resistance to any law rendering this mandatory. Originality/Value: Studies relating to the composition of the Board of Directors in smaller states such as the island state of Malta are infrequent. This paper provides information that is of particular value to listed companies in smaller states and their stakeholders, including regulators and sheds more light on the priniciple of proportionailty when dealing with requirements imposed by the authorities.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Antonín Korauš
Definition: Measuring efficiency and identifying the sources of potential inefficiency in particular are very important steps in improving the competitive position of the enterprises in their continuous development, sustainability, overall behavior in the current corporate environment and security aspects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Daeseok HAN
Definition: The international standard for asset management ISO55000 defines asset management as "coordinated activity of an organization to realize value from an asset". This standard requires establishing a Strategic Asset Management Plan (SAMP) for the organization’s achievement of goals (value), which includes response strategies for identifying, assessing, and controlling any possible risks that may occur during the goal achievement process. Goals and risks are important from the view of asset management as they provide the directions for management of the asset’s life-cycle and budget investment as the organization’s enterprise management policies. The International Infrastructure Management Manual (IIMM), developed to reflect ISO55000, divides the types of risks into the continuity of business management, safety, politics, law, finance, and cash flow, suggesting the quantitative evaluation method in the consideration of the Probability of Failure (POF) and Consequence of Failure (COF).
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Polinpapilinho Katina
Definition: Asset management (AsM) has emerged from engineering as a structured approach to organizing complex organizations to realize the value of assets while balancing performance, risks, costs, and opportunities. Complex system governance (CSG) is an emerging field encompassing a framework for system performance improvement through the purposeful design, execution, and evolution of essential metasystem functions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Sang-Eun Byun
Definition: A growing emphasis on stakeholder values of social and environmental responsibility and the triple bottom line (TBL) thinking led to the emergence of B Corporations (hereafter B Corps). B Corps are social enterprises that are committed to the TBL and certified by B Lab, a non-profit organization that assesses corporations’ overall impact of their decisions on their workers, customers, community, and the environment. Although B Corps serves as a catalyst for sustainable development, little is known about how they communicate on social media during a crisis. In this study, we examined the social media communications of B Corps to (1) identify salient topics and themes, (2) analyze how these themes align with the TBL, and (3) evaluate social media performance against industry benchmarks. We focused on the apparel, footwear, and accessories (AFA) sectors in the U.S. and chose Twitter, a platform known for crisis communication. Using a qualitative method, we found four topics and 21 underlying themes. Topics related to social/environmental issues and COVID-19 were most dominant, followed by product/brand promotions. Further classification of specific themes and cases from a TBL perspective demonstrated that, overall, B Corps in the AFA sectors leveraged various approaches to promote balance between each TBL dimension. Lastly, although collectively B Corps exceeded some of the Twitter industry benchmarks, at an individual level, most brands had room for improvement to build a stronger community and promote synergy among the three pillars of the TBL.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Laura Baselga-Pascual
Definition: Systemic Banking crises are a recurrent phenomenon that affects society, and there is a need for a better understanding of the risk factors to support prudential regulation and reduce unnecessary risk intake in the financial system. This paper examines the main bank risk determinants in Latin America. The period analysed covers the timespan from 1999 to 2013, including the systemic banking crisis episodes in Argentina (2001–2003) and Uruguay (2002–2005). We apply a new data-driven comparable methodology to classify and select commercial banks from the sample.
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