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Topic review
Updated time: 02 May 2021
Submitted by: Thyago Nepomuceno
Definition: The Blank and Null Voting Paradox or the Blank and Null Support is a generalized suboptimal support of invalid votes and deliberate abstentions misrepresenting the results in a plurality runoff (two-round) election by choosing a pseudo-Condorcet loser candidate. Nepomuceno and Costa (2019) provided some evidence of this suboptimal support in the 2014 Brazilian national elections by constructing a pairwise comparison with 3,010 voting intension interviews conducted in 204 Brazilian cities. The authors suggested that the 2016 historical impeachment of the Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff can be associated with this weak legitimate representation. This should not be confused with Fishburn and Brams (1983) no-show paradox, which states that the removal of a ballot, or the absence of a voter, might change the outcome of an election to a more preferable choice for that voter than if he or she decided to vote sincerely according to his/her preferences. In the Blank and Null Support, some results end up a worse outcome for the voter, and this outcome hardly could have been made by a strategic decision.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Songping Zhu
Definition: Macro control refers to the adjustment and control of the whole social economy in order to promote the development of the market and standardize the operation of the market. Output growth and technological progress show the performance of economic growth in gross and efficiency, respectively, which is the external performance and internal driving force of economic growth. To achieve long-term sustainable economic development, it is necessary to consider both the aggregate problem and technological progress. In this context, we attempts to explore the effectiveness of China’s macroeconomic regulation and control policy on output growth and technological progress under the economic policy uncertainty. Specifically, this paper analyzes the effectiveness of macroeconomic regulation and control policy on China’s output growth and technological progress in an uncertain environment, and then makes an empirical study by constructing a time-varying parameter vector autoregression model (TVP-VAR). Furthermore, the simulation test of the relevant results is carried out using the counter-fact analysis method.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Seng Boon Lim
Definition: The citizen-centric smart city is conceptualised from the citizenship perspective which stressed on the citizen's responsibilities and participatory governance practices in a smart city (Malek, Lim and Yigitcanlar, 2021). This conception argues that instead of the traditional view on fulfilling the citizen's needs, the citizens should co-produce, participate and contribute to building the smart city together with the government and corporates.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Glauco V. Pedrosa
Definition: Digital public services evaluation consists of monitoring and evaluation of indicators to assess the effectiveness of public services provided by a government in order to allow services with high performance, with a more rational planning and to satisfy the quality expected by the users.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Igor Calzada
Definition: Digital rights are fundamental rights in the digital age related to privacy protection in smart cities. In this vein, it has encouraged the United Nations to take an advocacy role regarding the ‘right to have digital rights’ and create the Hub for Human Rights and Digital Technology: ‘Together, as we seek to recover from the pandemic, we must learn to better curtail harmful use of digital technology and better unleash its power as a democratising force and an enabler’.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Mikael Granberg
Definition: European public procurement is designed at the European Union (EU) level and implemented in different national, regional and local contexts in Europe. Hence, public procurement has formally a similar design across the EU. The EU has a population of about 500 million people and one of the largest per capita ecological footprints in the world. Consequently, as public procurement stands for a sizable proportion of the consumption in the EU, its relevance for sustainable development, and the goal of sustainability, is significant.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Amrtatjuti Sereda
Definition: Integrated and ecosystem-based maritime policy should be seen as a versatile multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral instrument for international dialogue within the region.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Keunhwan Kim
Definition: Various developed nations, including the US (February 2019) and the EU (December 2019), have recently relaunched Green New Deals similar to the climate-oriented economic stimulus policies implemented after the 2008–2009 Great Recession; such green stimulus packages not only raise investments with short-term benefits for economic output and jobs, but also lay the groundwork for long-term innovation and economic development aligned with environmental constraints. The Korean government also considered reintroducing the Korean Green Growth Initiative of 2009 in response to the COVID-19 crisis as a national industrial strategy to promote green innovation and transform the industrial structure of key global industries such as motor vehicles, batteries, and electricity distribution systems; the aim was to make Korea a competitive leader in the future global economic structure. Eventually, the Korean government announced the Green New Deal as one of the three pillars of the Korean New Deal on 14 July 2020, and proposed a total investment of KRW 73.4 trillion (KRW 42.7 trillion from the treasury) over the next five years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Mar 2021
Definition: The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes to the institutional structure of the European Union. The traditional three pillar system has been abolished and provisions regarding formal Union institutions have been amended. The aim of this encyclopedia entry is to briefly describe the functioning of each of the formal EU institutions after the Lisbon amendment. More specifically, their main tasks and powers will be shortly presented, whilst more extensive bibliography will be provided. In this regard, the reader will be in position to understand the fundamentals of the EU institutional structure and also find valuable sources for further research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Norbert Kersting
Definition: The crisis of representative democracy triggered democratic innovations. Endeavors for the qualification of democratic systems and democratic reforms are high on the agenda. Political participation plays an important role in democracies. With the Rio conference in the 1990s, the Local Agenda 21 strategies strengthened a new trend towards more deliberative political participation, focusing on sustainability. Political participation is defined as an individual and organized act to influence political decision-making. Democratic innovations focus on political participatory instruments, electoral reforms, etc. In contrast, civic engagement and all forms of communal self-help predominately concentrate on producing certain services and, in general, do not include any decision-making competencies. This social innovation is not primarily oriented towards the influence of decision-making, but focuses on civic engagement as co-production. Political participation and civic engagement are interdependent, but have to be differentiated.
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