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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Xiaohong Yan
Definition: Long introm-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs which contained inverted repeats of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) separated by an intron, had been shown to very effective in triggering PDS silencing in Brassica napus. Using the PDS gene as a target control, it was shown that the RCA-mediated long ihpRNA construct was signicantly effective in triggering gene silence in B. napus.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Antonella Gori
Definition: ABA controls multiple plant physiological and biochemical processes. Here we have highlighted the role of this hormone in the regulation of plant WUE and reviewed promising biotechnogical approches to confer drought resistance and improve crop WUE.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Maria Frosini
Definition: The research for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas is still a great challenge. Acacia catechu Willd. heartwood extract (AC) has health-promoting qualities, especially at gastrointestinal level. This study characterized AC for its catechins content and investigates the apoptotic-enhancing effect in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, along with its ability to spare healthy tissue. Results showed that AC induced an increase in apoptotic cells and ROS formation, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential as well as increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity. AC did not affect rat ileum and colon rings viability and functionality, suggesting its safe profile toward healthy tissue. The present findings outline the potential of AC for colon cancer treatment.
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Biography
Updated time: 19 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Adriano Sofo
Abstract: Adriano Sofo graduated with a Master Degree in Biological Sciences from the University of Bari, Italy, in 1997. He spent three years (1999-2002) at the University of Basilicata, Italy, with a Doctorate in Crop Productivity. From 2000 to 2001, he also was a Researcher at the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Italy. As Postdoctoral Training, in 2002, he worked at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Heraklion, Greece, within a Marie Curie Fellowship. In 2007, he graduated with a second Master Degree in Plant Biotechnology from the University of Basilicata. He then trained as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Basilicata, where he also worked as Assistant Professor in Agricultural Chemistry. In 2015, he was awarded a Fulbright Research Scholar grant to spend at the University of California, Davis. In 2017, he received a fellowship award from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. In 2019, he was a visiting professor at Kindai University, Nara, Japan, within a JSPS Research Scholar Grant. In 2020, he has benefited from a DAAD Research Stay at the University of Bremen, Germany. Currently, he is Associate Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Plant Biology at the University of Basilicata. His research fields are: a) biochemistry and physiology of plants under abiotic stress conditions; b) soil chemistry/microbiology and soil sustainable management; c) food quality and plant secondary metabolites. He is actively working on the following topics: a) response of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses; b) response of plants and fungi to soil pollutants; c) soil quality and fertility in sustainable agro-ecosystems; d) food quality and improvement of plant material. He is the author of over 150 papers published in peer-reviewed journals and books. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Plant Biology (PagePress) and Section Editor-in-Chief of Plants - Plant-Soil Interactions (MDPI). He is Associate Editor of Functional Plant Biology (CSIRO) and Soil Use and Management (Wiley), and member of the Editorial Board of Plant Signaling & Behavior (Taylor & Francis), Sustainability - Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife Section (MDPI), PeerJ - the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences - Section Plant Biology (PeerJ Inc.), and Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, Soil & Plant Science (Taylor & Francis). In 2020, he was listed among 2% of the most cited scientists in the world - year 2019 (doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000918) and among the Top Italian Scientists, Natural & Environmental Sciences macroarea (http://www.topitalianscientists.org).
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Tsiry Rasamiravaka
Definition: Antivirulence is the concept of blocking virulence factors produced by pathogenic organism. In regards to bacteria, the idea is to design agents that block virulence rather than kill bacteria population that generate more selective pressure leading to antibiotic resistance. African plants, through their huge biodiversity, present a considerable reservoir of secondary metabolites with a very broad spectrum of biological activities, a potential source of natural products targeting such non-microbicidal mechanisms.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Submitted by: MUHAMMAD ALI ABID
Definition: Allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense) are cultivated worldwide for its white fiber. Since centuries, conventional breeding approaches increase cotton yield at the cost of extensive erosion of natural genetic variability. Sea Island cotton (G. barbadense) is known for its superior fiber quality, but show poor adaptability as compared to Upland cotton. Hence, there is a dire need to improve the current germplasm resources of Sea Island cotton to develop diverse breeding lines with improved adaptability and excellent agronomic and economic traits. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is an excellent mutagenic agent that induces genome-wide point mutations to activate the mutagenic potential of plants. In current study, we determined the optimal EMS experimental procedure suitable for construction of cotton mutant library. At M6 generation, mutant library comprised of lines with distinguished phenotypes of the plant architecture, leaf, flower, boll and fiber. Genome wide analysis of SNP distribution and density in yellow leaf mutants reflected the better quality of mutant library. Our mutant collection will serve as the valuable resource for basic research on cotton functional genomics, as well as cotton breeding.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Nov 2020
Definition: Alpha-emitting radioisotopes are the most radiotoxic nuclides among all radionuclides. Especially medium- and long-living isotopes that enter the body, are hazardous metals of the greatest importance from the human life point of view. This review focuses on the most common natural and anthropogenic origin alpha-emitting radionuclides in wild mushrooms around the world. Mushrooms are considered as suitable bioindicators of environmental pollution with some metallic elements, for the reason they bioaccumulate a range of mineral ionic constituents including radioactive elements at different levels. Various species have different retain capacities of individual radionuclides. In turn, wild edible mushrooms are food products, mostly consumed regionally and also traded at an international scale. Mushrooms under pollution events situation might cause a risk to consumers due to exposure to highly radiotoxic decay particles produced by alpha emitters.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Nestor Del-Saz
Definition: The interaction of the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway with nutrient metabolism is important for understanding how respiration modulates ATP synthesis and carbon economy in plants under nutrient deficiency. Although AOX activity reduces the energy yield of respiration, this enzymatic activity is upregulated under stress conditions to maintain the functioning of primary metabolism. The in vivo metabolic regulation of AOX activity by phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) and during plant symbioses with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Rhizobium bacteria is still not fully understood. We highlight several findings and open questions concerning the in vivo regulation of AOX activity and its impact on plant metabolism during P deficiency and symbiosis with AMF. We also highlight the need for the identification of which metabolic regulatory factors of AOX activity are related to N availability and nitrogen‐fixing legume‐rhizobia symbiosis in order to improve our understanding of N assimilation and biological nitrogen fixation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Sabrin Ibrahim
Definition: Liver diseases represent a threat to human health and are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a progressive and chronic hepatic inflammatory disease, which may lead to severe complications. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatic injury is regarded as an appropriate experimental model for investigating the pathology and mechanisms involved in liver injury mediated by immune cells as well as T cell-related liver disease. Despite the advances in modern medicine, the only available strategies to treat AIH, include the use of steroids either solely or with immunosuppressant drugs. Unfortunately, this currently available treatment is associated with significant side-effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for safe and effective drugs to replace and/or supplement those in current use. Natural products have been utilized for treating liver disorders and have become a promising therapy for various liver disorders.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jun 2020
Submitted by: Nataliya Trubacheeva
Definition: One of the limitations in obtaining the genetic diversity of doubled haploid (DH) lines via anther culture is the development of families of regenerants, and each family represents a clone. This work examines the results of studying this phenomenon in anther culture of alloplasmic (H. vulgare)–T. aestivum and euplasmic lines with 1RS.1BL and 7DL-7Ai translocations and hybrids between them. Parameters of androgenesis such as the number of embryo-like structures, the total number of regenerants, and the number of green regenerants per 100 anthers varied depending on the genotype. In all genotypes from embryo-like structures, predominant development of families of plantlets rather than single plantlets was found. The source of family plantlets was polyembryos. About 75% of families consisted of regenerants at the same fertility level. On average, 37.74%4% of the R0 plants were fertile. The sister DH lines of three hybrid combinations were formed from seeds of R1 plants (2n = 42) with high fertility and in the presence of wheat–alien translocations. After four years of breeding trials, the sister DH lines of three families with fungal disease resistance increased yield, and some parameters of grain quality exceeding the controls were identified as promising for breeding.
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