The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. Typical processes that are investigated and applied to wastewater treatment can be the following: biological, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, filtration, etc. This entry collection features information about many processes of wastewater treatment and many other related issues such as reuse, cost, fluid aspects, plants, etc.

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Topic Review
Microalgae Cultivation Techniques and Growth Conditions
Microalgae, constituting a wide range of photosynthetic organisms, span from fundamental blue-green algae (cyanobacteria/prokaryotes) to complex seaweeds, rendering them one of the most diverse groups in the biological kingdom.
  • 314
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Environmental Applications of TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Nanostructures
Contemporary technological and industrial advancements have led to increased reliance on chemicals for product innovation, leading to heightened contamination of water sources by traditional pollutants (organic dyes, heavy metals) and disease-causing microorganisms. Wastewater treatment processes now reveal “emerging pollutants”, including pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, and agricultural chemicals. While some are benign, certain emerging pollutants can harm diverse organisms. Researchers seek cost-effective water purification methods that completely degrade pollutants without generating harmful by-products. Semiconductor-based photocatalytic degradation, particularly using titanium dioxide (TiO2), is popular for addressing water pollution.
  • 494
  • 20 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Cationic Polystyrene-Based Hydrogels
Nitrites are metastable anions that are derived from the oxidation of ammonia by agricultural pollution, sewage, decaying protein, and other nitrogen sources. They are a recognized environmental issue due to their role in eutrophication, as well as in surface and groundwater contamination, being toxic to almost all living creatures. Two cationic resins (R1 and R2) forming hydrogels (R1HG and R2HG) by dispersion in water in removing anionic dyes from water by electrostatic binding. 
  • 211
  • 01 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Application of Atomic Force Microscopy in Membrane Fouling
Membrane separation technology has emerged as the preferred method for producing clean water during wastewater treatment and desalination. This preference is attributed to the high separation accuracy, energy efficiency, lack of secondary pollution, and ease of operation of the technology. Membrane fouling is a key obstacle in membrane applications, including ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO). Membrane fouling is a particularly serious problem in the pre-treatment processes of industrial wastewater, leading to poor water quality and increased operating costs. A thorough understanding of fouling formation and properties is required in wastewater treatment using membranes and contributes to slowing down membrane fouling and implementing appropriate control measures. In response, extensive foundational investigations of membrane fouling have been conducted, with researchers seeking to clarify primary foulants, membrane–foulant interactions, and potential fouling mitigation techniques.
  • 443
  • 02 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Antibiotics Remediation Technologies
Antibiotics are used widely in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture. However, a portion of these compounds is excreted by treated organisms, entering water bodies through hospital effluents, domestic sewage, and agricultural waste. Furthermore, pharmaceutical production and improper disposal contribute to environmental contamination. The presence of antibiotics in the environment can have highly adverse consequences, such as the development and dissemination of bacterial resistance, reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infections. Several techniques are available for treating antibiotic contamination in water, including physical, chemical, and biological processes. The variety of techniques allows adaptation to the specific conditions of each case, selecting the most effective and cost-effective method considering the available infrastructure. 
  • 349
  • 18 Jun 2024
Jae Kwang Park
Dr. Park is a distinguished professor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Renowned for his groundbreaking contributions to wastewater treatment technology and environmental sustainability, Dr. Park's work has had a profound impact on both the sciences and the humanities. Dr. Park's most notable contribution is the development of a re
  • 444
  • 27 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Ultrasound-Enhanced Organic Wastewater Treatment Equipments
Ultrasound waves have been widely used in the field of organic wastewater treatment due to their mechanical, thermal, and chemical effects derived from their cavitation effect. Many researchers have combined ultrasound waves with other organic wastewater treatment methods because they have the potential to offset the disadvantages of other method.
  • 248
  • 17 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Applications of Biodegradable Poly Blends/Composites
Biodegradable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and its composites or blends have received a lot of attention in the past because of their potential applications in human life and environmental remediation. Greater efforts have been made to develop biodegradable chemical materials as adsorbents that do not pollute the environment in order to replace traditional materials. 
  • 588
  • 09 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Pilot and Full-Scale Applications of P Recovery
Elevated phosphorus (P) levels in water sources can result in eutrophication, which in turn causes environmental pollution and adversely affects aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, there is a risk of P depletion due to intensive exploitation and utilization. Therefore, the sustainable and efficient use of P, waste reduction, and P recovery from waste sources have become urgent priorities.
  • 298
  • 01 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater
The treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) is of great interest in industrial wastewater management. This wastewater contains a diverse concentration of contaminants such as oil and grease, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, ammonia, and sulfides, as well as other organic and inorganic composites. Refinery wastewater treatment has been attempted through various processes, including physical, biological, chemical, and hybrid methods, which combine two or more techniques. 
  • 908
  • 30 Oct 2023
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