Topic Review
Alkaline Phosphatase on Health
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is abundant in raw milk. Because of its high heat resistance, ALP negative is used as an indicator of successful sterilization. However, pasteurized milk loses its immune protection against allergies. Clinically, ALP is also used as an indicator of organ diseases. When the activity of ALP in blood increases, it is considered that diseases occur in the viscera and organs. Oral administration or injection of ALP will not cause harm to the body and has a variety of probiotic effects. For infants with low immunity, ALP intake is a good prebiotic, which can protect the infant's intestine from potential pathogens. In addition, ALP has a variety of probiotic effects on any age group, including the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases, allergies, hepatitis, acute kidney injury (AKI), diabetes, and even the prevention of aging.
  • 11
  • 22 May 2022
Topic Review
Data Intelligence in Public Transportation
Transport infrastructure investments must be linked to the public transport demand strategically. User behavior and decision-making process bring several possible alternative transportation options due to factors that define it. Municipalities must manage these factors to promote equal and sustainable transport solutions through urban infrastructure, public transport competitiveness, and attractiveness, and fossil fuels use and pricing policy. The research objective is to determine these factors to monitor and use them for citizens’ benefit through analytical tools and data intelligence methods to gain a superior knowledge of reality with a focus on improving investments and services in an agile and efficient manner. Research analysis indicates direct causal relationships between the studied factors and that the necessary data for decision-making is available in the government information systems. Therefore, urban management can be more balanced and assertive in transport infrastructure investments and citizen services provision.
  • 59
  • 22 May 2022
Topic Review
Evaluation IDS Models For IoT
Using the Internet of Things (IoT) for various applications, such as home and wearables devices, network applications, and even self-driven vehicles, detecting abnormal traffic is one of the problematic areas for researchers to protect network infrastructure from adversary activities. Several network systems suffer from drawbacks that allow intruders to use malicious traffic to obtain unauthorized access. Attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service attacks (DDoS), Denial of Service attacks (DoS), and Service Scans demand a unique automatic system capable of identifying traffic abnormality at the earliest stage to avoid system damage. Numerous automatic approaches can detect abnormal traffic. However, accuracy is not only the issue with current Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), but the efficiency, flexibility, and scalability need to be enhanced to detect attack traffic from various IoT networks. 
  • 20
  • 22 May 2022
Topic Review
Digitalization Associated Circular Economy
The concept of a circular economy (CE) designates a comprehensive approach towards sustainable development, conceived with the aim of putting together and strengthening the community, businesses and the environment. Despite becoming a stereotypical term in the literature, from the late 1970s to the present day, various researchers have paid attention to different facets of CE while striving to reach a consensus on the most appropriate way of defining it. In the context of new business models focused on circularity principles, cloud computing denotes an IT service model that gives access to a common pool of customizable computing assets, such as databases, networks, servers, storage capabilities, applications, etc., which can be instantaneously provided to costumers on their request through the Internet, irrespective of their location or accessing devices. Cloud technologies frequently show high levels of comprehensibility and their development represents a fairly easy process; therefore, they are extremely widespread among SMEs. Cloud solutions cand contribute to promoting circularity principles through varoius ways: improving the energy efficiency, decreasing in carbon footprints, facilitating e-waste management practices and lowering of operational costs. SMEs seem to encounter greater challenges than large companies in terms of enhancing the sustainability of their operations through innovative business strategies. However, despite the cancellation of their business orders or contracts due to the pandemic, studies have shown that certain SMEs that incorporated digital tools were able to implement innovative strategies that enabled them to soar to growth rate levels twice as high as other small businesses that did not embrace new technologies.
  • 13
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
6-MWT& pulmonary arterial stiffness in patients with PAH
Pulmonary arterial stiffness (PAS) has been shown to be related to pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between functional capacity and echocardiographic indices of PAS in patients with PAH.
  • 8
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
Regulatory Focus and Consumers’ Attitudes toward Artificial Meat
While production and consumption of meat cast a shadow over the prospects for sustainable development, artificial meat may be the solution. However, consumer acceptability of artificial meat is a major impediment to its use as a suitable alternative. This study analyzed the relationship between regulatory focus and consumer acceptance of artificial meat using randomized controlled trial data. Results showed that promotion focus results in a higher acceptance of artificial meat products due to a higher perceived benefit and lower perceived risk, whereas prevention focus results in a lower acceptance of artificial meat products due to perceived benefit being lower and perceived risk being higher. The moderating effect of the message framing was investigated employing structural equation modeling (SEM). It was discovered that a gain-oriented message framing could greatly strengthen the association between promotion focus and perceived benefit, whereas an avoidance oriented message framing could significantly diminish the relationship between prevention focus and perceived risk. This study has crucial implications for how policymakers and industries communicate with consumers about artificial meat.
  • 9
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
The Causal Factors of Elevator Maintenance
Maintenance is crucial for healthcare facilities in terms of both the continuity of operations and annual costs. Many maintenance issues are associated with design decisions that pave the way for added costs in later lifecycle stages. Some systems, e.g., elevators, are sources of maintenance costs; additionally, elevator outages are significant issues for multi-floor healthcare facilities. Considering the maintainability of elevators from the early design stages helps to highlight potential maintenance issues in later stages. This also assists in mitigating costs by avoiding design decisions that result in future maintenance costs. This research uses the expertise of facility managers who have experience with maintenance issues resulting from design decisions. A list of 35 elevator maintenance issues caused by design flaws is presented in this paper, based on the literature and semi-structuredinterviews with a representative sample of six healthcare facility management experts. Then, a questionnaire using convenience sampling was conducted with facility management professionals to evaluate and rank the maintenance issues. While 60 professionals responded, only 30 attempted the four-parameter evaluation of all listed maintenance issues. The results of the questionnaire determined elevator car jams, sudden stops, and working space conditions to be the most critical issues faced by facility managers in healthcare facilities. The output of this study can help designers of new healthcare facilities to avoid decisions that result in unwarranted maintenance issues with costly impacts.
  • 12
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
Geopolitical Risk
Geopolitical risk (GPR), according to Caldara and Iacoviello, is defined as the risk associated with terror threats, war threats, nuclear threats and military build-ups between states or countries that disrupt the usual, peaceful conduct of international affairs.
  • 10
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
Lean ICU Layout
Lean ICU layout re-design: A simulation-based approach   Healthcare facilities require flexible layouts that can adapt quickly in the face of various disruptions. Covid-19 confirmed this need for both healthcare and manufacturing systems. Starting with the transfer of decision support systems from manufacturing, this paper generalizes layout re-design activities for complex systems by presenting a simulation framework. Through a real case study concerning the proliferation of nosocomial cross-infection in an intensive care unit (ICU), the model developed in systems dynamics, based on a zero order immediate logic, allows reproducing the evolution of the different agencies (e.g., physicians, nurses, ancillary workers, patients) as well as of the cyber-technical side of the ICU, in its general but also local aspects. The entire global workflow is theoretically founded on Lean principles, with the goal of balancing the need for minimal patient throughput time and maximum efficiency by optimizing the resources used during the process. The proposed framework might be transferred to other wards with minimal adjustments, hence it has the potential to represent the initial step for a modular depiction of an entire healthcare facility.
  • 16
  • 21 May 2022
Topic Review
Opportunities and Challenges in Developing Ocean Energy Sources
The optimal utilization of renewable energies is a crucial factor toward the realization of sustainability and zero carbon in a future energy system. Tidal currents, waves, and thermal and salinity gradients in the ocean are excellent renewable energy sources. Ocean tidal, osmotic, wave, and thermal energy sources have yearly potentials that exceed the global power demand of 22,848 TWh/y. It is expected that a better insight into ocean energy and a deep understanding of various potential devices can lead to a broader adoption of ocean energy. It is also clear that further research into control strategies is needed. Policy makers should provide financial support for technologies in the demonstration stage and employ road mapping to accelerate the cost and risk reductions to overcome economic hurdles. 
  • 4
  • 21 May 2022
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