Topic Review
Perceptual Organization
Gestalt theory has provided perceptual science with a conceptual framework relating to brain mechanisms that determine the way we see the visual world. This is referred to as "Perceptual Organization" and has inspired researchers in Psychology, Neuroscience and Computational Design ever since. The major Gestalt principles, such as the principle of Prägnanz, and more importantly the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization, have been critically important to our understanding of visual information processing, how the brain detects order in what we see, and derives likely perceptual representations from statistically significant structural regularities. The perceptual integration of contrast information across co-linear space for the organization of objects in the 2D image plane into figure and ground convey the most elementary basis to our understanding of the visual world. Gestalt theory continues to generate powerful concepts and insights for perceptual science even today, where it is to be placed in the context of image-base decision making by human minds and machines.
  • 8893
  • 22 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). 
  • 8822
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Sustainability Literacy
Sustainability is an increasingly central concept, both in social practice and in scientific, economic and even political fields. The promotion of sustainability literacy is critical in enabling informed civic participation.
  • 8797
  • 04 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Six Stages to Choose Sampling Techniques
In order to answer the research questions, it is doubtful that researcher should be able to collect data from all cases. Thus, there is a need to select a sample. The entire set of cases from which researcher sample is drawn in called the population. Since, researchers neither have time nor the resources to analysis the entire population so they apply sampling technique to reduce the number of cases. There are six stages to choose sampling techniques.
  • 8780
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Modular Multilevel Converters
A modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an advanced voltage source converter applicable to a wide range of medium and high-voltage applications. It has competitive advantages such as quality output performance, high modularity, simple scalability, and low voltage and current rating demand for the power switches. The generalized configuration of a three-phase MMC is comprised of a DC terminal, an AC terminal, and a converting kernel involving three phase legs. Each leg/phase has two symmetric arms referred to as the upper arm and lower arm. The upper arm and lower arm contain a group of identical submodules connected in series together with a chock inductor to suppress high-frequency components in the arm current.  The research interests of MMCs are primarily associated with the topologies, mathematical modeling, output voltage and current control, submodule balancing control, circulating current control, and modulation methods. And the incorporation of wideband gap (WBG) semiconductors are prospected to facilitate the MMC application with further advantages of high-voltage and high-power operations, low power losses, high efficiency, improved reliability, and reduced module size and cooling system.
  • 8746
  • 18 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Pro-Environmental Behavior
Pro-environmental behavior, also known as green-, sustainable-, or environmentally-friendly (eco-friendly) behavior, is defined as behaviors in which individuals take protective actions toward the environment [8]. 
  • 8558
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Participatory Forest Management
Participatory forest management has been considered as a practical and effective strategy for sustainable forest management, especially in situations where land tenure is not securely settled. For effective restoration projects, local communities, as the cornerstone of participatory management, should be provided with incentives to facilitate their participation and active role. We postulate that participation in mangrove restoration projects can not only provide financial rewards but also yield intangible benefits for communities, i.e., social capital upgraded. Our study with the case of coastal mangrove restoration in the Philippines concluded that local people’s participation is a viable option for natural resource management that can create benefits and favorable conditions to communities. 
  • 8411
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Ivermectin as Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral
The small molecule macrocyclic lactone ivermectin, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has received attention in the last eight years due to its exciting potential as an antiviral. It was identified in a high-throughput chemical screen as inhibiting recognition of the nuclear localizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) integrase protein by the host heterodimeric importin (IMP) α/β1 complex, and has since been shown to bind directly to IMPα to induce conformational changes that prevent its normal function in mediating nuclear import of key viral and host proteins. Excitingly, cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Chikungunya virus, Pseudorabies virus, adenovirus, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Phase III human clinical trials have been completed for DENV, with >60 trials currently in progress worldwide for SARS-CoV-2.
  • 8310
  • 30 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Palm Wine
The reference to palm wine as a drink with many functionalities has increased over the years. However, few empirical tests have been carried out on humans to substantiate the claims. This perspective looks at the biochemical and microbiological reports on palm wine to highlight the constituents that are associated with functional beverages. Based on the constituents of the drink, it may qualify as a multifunctional beverage because several investigators have demonstrated disease risk reduction, improved nutrition and health outcomes in many studies, albeit in rats rather than humans. The constituents found in functional beverages are present in the drink. However, when assessed under European Union regulations, fermented palm wine (from 3% alcohol) cannot be regarded as a functional beverage because beverages that contain over 1.2% alcohol cannot be approved for any claim on health or nutritional benefit. The fresh sap with much lower alcohol may be suitable after it is refined and subjected to scientific examination to determine quantities of the drink that can confer health benefits on humans.
  • 8165
  • 10 Aug 2021
Topic Review
TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms
In today’s data networks, the main protocol used to ensure reliable communications is the transmission control protocol (TCP). The TCP performance is largely determined by the used congestion control (CC) algorithm, which main purpose is to avoid the congestion of the network that can be caused by a large burst of data traffic. TCP CC algorithms have evolved over the past three decades and a large number of CC algorithm variations have been developed to accommodate various communication network environments. Considering the importance of CC in communication networks, the fundamentals of the TCP as the main transport layer protocol and CC process have been explained in detail. Also, an encyclopedic overview of the most popular single-flow and multi-flow TCP CC algorithms with corresponding alternatives has been present. Future directions in the possible improvement of CC algorithms for implementation in complex heterogeneous networks composed of wired and wireless elements are lastly discussed in this encyclopedic work. 
  • 7905
  • 21 Jul 2021
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