Topic Review
Dental Stem Cells
Stem cells of the teeth can contribute to the regeneration of non-dental organs, namely mammary glands. According to a new study from researchers at the University of Zurich, dental epithelial stem cells from mice can generate mammary ducts and even milk-producing cells when transplanted into mammary glands. This could be used for post-surgery tissue regeneration in breast cancer patients. The ability of adult stem cells to generate various tissue-specific cell populations is of great interest in the medical and dental research fields. These cells can replace damaged cells and therefore represent a good alternative to classical medical treatments for tissue regeneration. This may even allow the de novo formation entire tissues and organs in the future.
  • 444
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Optogenetics
The cerebellum is most renowned for its role in sensorimotor control and coordination, but a growing number of anatomical and physiological studies are demonstrating its deep involvement in cognitive and emotional functions. Recently, the development and refinement of optogenetic techniques boosted research in the cerebellar field and, impressively, revolutionized the methodological approach and endowed the investigations with entirely new capabilities. This translated into a significant improvement in the data acquired for sensorimotor tests, allowing one to correlate single-cell activity with motor behavior to the extent of determining the role of single neuronal types and single connection pathways in controlling precise aspects of movement kinematics. These levels of specificity in correlating neuronal activity to behavior could not be achieved in the past, when electrical and pharmacological stimulations were the only available experimental tools. The application of optogenetics to the investigation of the cerebellar role in higher-order and cognitive functions, which involves a high degree of connectivity with multiple brain areas, has been even more significant. It is possible that, in this field, optogenetics has changed the game, and the number of investigations using optogenetics to study the cerebellar role in non-sensorimotor functions in awake animals is growing. The main issues addressed by these studies are the cerebellar role in epilepsy (through connections to the hippocampus and the temporal lobe), schizophrenia and cognition, working memory for decision making, and social behavior. It is also worth noting that optogenetics opened a new perspective for cerebellar neurostimulation in patients (e.g., for epilepsy treatment and stroke rehabilitation), promising unprecedented specificity in the targeted pathways that could be either activated or inhibited.
  • 399
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Milk Exosomes
Milk contains various extracellular vesicles and non-vesicular structures: exosomes (with diameter 40-100 nm), vesicles of other size, fat globules (with diameter 4-6 mkm, containing milk fat globule membranes), and their aggregates. Due to the biocompatibility of milk exosomes, these vesicles have a wide potential as vehicles for oral delivery of therapeutically relevant molecules (drugs and therapeutic nucleic acids).
  • 391
  • 21 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Arcady Putilov
After graduating from the State University of Tomsk in 1976 (MD in biology), Arcady Putilov received his first PhD (Doctoral Candidate) from the Institute of Physiology in 1985 (in animal and human physiology), and his second PhD (Doctor of Science) from the Medical University of Tomsk in 1999 (in normal physiology). Since 1976, he was affiliated with the Institute of Physiology. In 1995, he moved to the Institute for General Pathology and Human Ecology, Novosibirsk, and, in 1995-1999, he was also affiliated with the International Scientific Center ARKTIKA (the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, and the University of Alaska, Anchorage). Currently, Dr. Putilov 's academic positions include chief researcher at the Research Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics of the Federal Research Centre for Fundamental and Translational Medicine, head of independent research group for Mathematical Modeling of Biomedical Systems (MMBMS). His experimental studies are regularly supported by research grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Science and the Russian Foundation for Humanities. The results of his early scientific studies on various rhythmic phenomena were summarized in the monograph Systemforming Function of Synchronization in the Living Nature (Science: Novosibirsk, 1987 [in Russian]). The results of his more recent research on structuring individual variation were reviewed in the monograph Geometry of Individual Variation in Personality and Sleep-Wake Adaptability (Nova Science Pub Inc: New York, 4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide). His several works appealing to lay audience of Russian-speaking readers include a book "Larks", "Owls" and Other… (1997, 1st ed., 2003, 2nd ed., and 2005, 3rd ed.) and historical essays “Evolution of psychology: history of basic psychological and biological theories in the mirror of evolutionary psychology” (2013) and “History and state-of-the-art review of experimental research on biological rhythms: From observations of leaf movements to forced desynchrony studies” (2016). Dr. Putilov is the first and/or corresponding author of 95% of several dozen research papers on chronobiology, somnology, personality, and biological psychiatry published in peer reviewed international journals (Frontiers in Physiology, Chronobiology International, Biological Rhythm Research, Somnologie, Sleep Science, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Nature and Science of Sleep, Neuropsychopharmacology, Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Physiology and Behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Individual Differences, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Journal of Psychophysiology, World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Psychiatry Research, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Psychopathology, etc.). Since 1991, Dr. Putilov has served as a member of editorial board of Biological Rhythm Research (Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research in years 1970 – 1993) to be appointed in year 2016 for a position of co-editor of this journal. In more recent years, he joined the editorial boards of several online journals as an editor (including Section Editor-in-Chief for Clock&Sleep, Review Editor for Fractal Physiology section of Frontiers in Physiology, Consulting Editor for Nature and Science of Sleep, etc.). He also was Lead Guest Editor for Sleep Disorders (2011-2013) and Guest Editor for Current Aging Science (2014-2016). Moreover, he serves as a member of editorial board and/or peer reviewer for more than 50 other international journals. Dr. Putilov is experienced in giving lectures for academic, student and lay audiences. Since 1993, he has lectured at the Humanitarian Academy of Siberia, the Classical Institute, and the Novosibirsk State University (Novosibirsk). In 2002-2004 he organized a series of the International Siberian Indian Summer Schools on Human Ethology. In 2001-2003, his work on a textbook on evolutionary psychology was supported by a grant from Russian Foundation for Humanities (Human zoological psychology: Mind of men and women in the mirror of evolution). In 2016, he served as an invited lecturer at the 9th International Workshop for Young Scientists Sleep - a window to the world of wakefulness (Moscow State University, Moscow). Dr. Putilov participated in presentation of innovative technologies in the exposition of the Russian Ministry for Science and Education (e.g., at Internationale Funkausstellung, Berlin, 2001, Hanover Messe, Hannover, 2007, etc.). He was included in Who Is Who in Russian Science and profiled in Marquis Who's Who in the World and The Achievements of Chronobiology and Chronomedicine (Yerevan: Noyan Tapan, 2002, p. 215).
  • 378
  • 22 Sep 2020
Topic Review
TPC1 in plants
TPC1 in plants is localized in the vacuolar membrane. Its activity is strictly regulated by several factors emphasizing its complex structure and function. The physiological role of TPC1 is under debate. The TPC1 hyperactive version fou2 (carring D454N mutation) is characterized by an overproduction of jasmonate acid (JA), however the tpc1-2 knockout mutant has no pronounced phenotype. The intriguing concept of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release was assigned to Vicia faba TPC1 in 1994 by Ward and Schroeder, however it has still not been confirmed for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
  • 365
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
TRPV1
Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key determinant of cell fate and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Membrane ion channels are structures through which ions enter or exit the cell, depending on the driving forces. The opening of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ligand-gated ion channels facilitates transmembrane Ca2+ and Na+ entry, which modifies the delicate balance between apoptotic and proliferative signaling pathways. Proliferation is upregulated through two mechanisms: (1) ATP binding to the G-protein-coupled receptor P2Y2, commencing a kinase signaling cascade that activates the serine-threonine kinase Akt, and (2) the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), leading to a series of protein signals that activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2. The TRPV1-apoptosis pathway involves Ca2+ influx and efflux between the cytosol, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from the mitochondria, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation and condensation. While proliferative mechanisms are typically upregulated in cancerous tissues, shifting the balance to favor apoptosis could support anti-cancer therapies. TRPV1, through [Ca2+]i signaling, influences cancer cell fate; therefore, the modulation of the TRPV1-enforced proliferation–apoptosis balance is a promising avenue in developing anti-cancer therapies and overcoming cancer drug resistance. 
  • 359
  • 09 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Embodied 'Basic' Emotions in Chinese and English Language
References to the body are one feature shared across languages, particularly when describing the mental processes of emotion, reflecting the embodiment of an emotional experience. Embodied emotion concepts encompass these categorized outcomes of bidirectional brain–body interactions yet can be differentiated further into afferent or interoceptive and efferent or autonomic processes. Between languages, a comparison of emotion words indicates the dominance of afferent or interoceptive processes in how embodied emotions are conceptualized in Chinese, while efferent or autonomic processes feature more commonly in English. Correspondingly, in linguistic expressions of emotion, Chinese-speaking people are biased toward being more receptive, reflective, and adaptive, whereas native English speakers may tend to be more reactive, proactive, and interactive. 
  • 357
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Intracardiac Nervous System
The intracardiac nervous system (IcNS), sometimes referred to as the “little brain” of the heart, is involved in modulating aspects of cardiac physiology. The IcNS is composed of neuronal and non-neuronal compartments intrinsic to the heart and includes afferent, efferent, and intra- neurons, using sympathetic, parasympathetic, and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neural transmitters, and forming feedback loops with the central (brain and spine) and peripheral (paravertebral ganglia) nervous systems.
  • 350
  • 11 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Cadmium and Lead Exposure
This entry provides information relevant to public health policy regarding advisable exposure limits for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) that have no biologic role in humans. All of their perceptible effects are toxic. These metals exist in virtually all foodstuffs. Foods which are frequently consumed in large quantities such as cereals, rice, potatoes and vegetables contribute the most to total intake of these metals. Because Cd and Pb exposure are highly prevalent, even a small increase in disease risk can result in a large number of people affected by a disease that is preventable. Public measures to minimize environmental pollution and the food-chain transfer of Cd and Pb are required to prevent Cd- and Pb- related ailments and mortality as are risk reduction measures that set a maximally permissible concentration of Cd and Pb in staple food to the lowest achievable levels.
  • 336
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
ZIKA Virus and Male Infertility
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been reported by several groups as an important virus causing pathological damage in the male reproductive tract. ZIKV can infect and persist in testicular somatic and germ cells, as well as spermatozoa, leading to cell death and testicular atrophy. ZIKV has also been detected in semen samples from ZIKV-infected patients. This has huge implications for human reproduction. Global scientific efforts are being applied to understand the mechanisms related to arboviruses persistency, pathogenesis, and host cellular response to suggest a potential target to develop robust antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we discuss the cellular modulation of the immunologic and physiologic properties of the male reproductive tract environment caused by arboviruses infection, focusing on ZIKV. We also present an overview of the current vaccine effects and therapeutic targets against ZIKV infection that may impact the testis and male fertility.
  • 336
  • 01 Nov 2020
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