Topic Review
Information Exactly Defined
This review focuses the exact and global definition of information (for unambiguous interpretation as mathematical object) and its digital application. New uniformly defined "domain vectors" (DVs), with structure "UL plus number sequence", are proposed. The "UL" is an efficient global pointer to the uniform online definition of the (after the UL) following number sequence. DVs are globally exactly defined, identified, interoperable, comparable, and (language independently) searchable by criteria which users can define online. The introduction of a compact DV data structure may substantially improve the digital representation of information.
  • 939
  • 11 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Big Data Mining
Big data mining (BDM) is an approach that uses the cumulative data mining or extraction techniques on large datasets / volumes of data. It is mainly focused on retrieving relevant and demanded information (or patterns) and thus extracting value hidden in data of an immense volume. BDM draws from the conventional data mining notation but also combines the aspects of big data, i.e. it enables to acquire useful information from databases or data streams that are huge in terms of “big data V’s”, like volume, velocity, and variety.
  • 898
  • 05 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Big Data Analytics in COVID-19
The COVID-19 epidemic has caused a large number of human losses and havoc in the economic, social, societal, and health systems around the world. Controlling such epidemic requires understanding its characteristics and behavior, which can be identified by collecting and analyzing the related big data. Big data analytics tools play a vital role in building knowledge required in making decisions and precautionary measures. However, due to the vast amount of data available on COVID-19 from various sources, there is a need to review the roles of big data analysis in controlling the spread of COVID-19, presenting the main challenges and directions of COVID-19 data analysis, as well as providing a framework on the related existing applications and studies to facilitate future research on COVID-19 analysis.
  • 897
  • 04 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Beacons and BIM Models
This research work uses a simplified approach to combine location information from a beacon's propagation signal interaction with a mobile device sensor (accelerometer and gyroscope) with local building information to give real-time location and guidance to a user inside a building. This is an interactive process with visualisation information that can help user's orientation inside unknown buildings and the data stored from different users can provide useful information about users’ movements inside a public building. Beacons installed on the building at specific pre-defined positions emit signals that give a geographic position with an associated imprecision, related with Bluetooth’s range. This uncertainty is handled by building layout and users' movement in a developed system that maps users' position, gives guidance, and stores user movements. This system is based on an App (Find Me!) for Android OS (Operating System) which captures the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signal coming from the beacon(s) and shows, through a map, the location of the user's smartphone and guide him to the desired destination. Also, the beacons can deliver relevant context information. The application was tested by a panel of new and habitual campus users against traditional wayfinding alternatives yielding navigation times about 30% smaller, respectively.
  • 825
  • 04 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Crowd Counting
Crowd counting refers to estimating the number of individuals who share a certain region. This work present a survey for the main methods that calculate how many individuals are in a physical region. We start by reviewing traditional computer vision methods and then review deep learning-based methods.
  • 824
  • 19 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Background on Computing Paradigms
General overview of the different mentioned paradigms needs to be provided in order to be oriented in the computing field. For clarity and consistency, each paradigm is carefully discussed concisely in the oncoming text. The reason for discussing each of these paradigms is to have an overview that will guide the understanding of the research goal for this entry, which is primarily the information security and privacy aspects for each paradigm.
  • 815
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Data Ownership in Healthcare
This section briefly discusses this issue of data ownership in the light of recent privacy laws. These laws have a very large impact on the topic of data sharing. It shows that these privacy laws provide rights to the patient, but they do not necessarily make clear who is the owner of the data. They only provide a legal framework for the handling of the data.
  • 781
  • 05 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Big Data Concepts
The entries consolidates the main concepts about Big Data modeling and management. The characterization and the definitions about structured, semi-structured and unstructured data.
  • 691
  • 04 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Industry 4.0 Readiness Models
It is critical for organizations to self-assess their Industry 4.0 readiness to survive and thrive in the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Thereon, conceptualization or development of an Industry 4.0 readiness model with the fundamental model dimensions is needed. This paper used a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and content analysis strategy to review 97 papers in peer-reviewed academic journals and industry reports published from 2000 to 2019. The review identifies 30 Industry 4.0 readiness models with 158 unique model dimensions. Based on this review, there are two theoretical contributions. First, this paper proposes six dimensions (Technology, People, Strategy, Leadership, Process and Innovation) that can be considered as the most important dimensions for organizations. Second, this review reveals that 70 (44%) out of total 158 total unique dimensions on Industry 4.0 pertain to the assessment of technology alone. This establishes that organizations need to largely improve on their technology readiness, to strengthen their Industry 4.0 readiness. In summary, these six most common dimensions, and in particular, the dominance of the technology dimension provides a research agenda for future research on Industry 4.0 readiness.
  • 661
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Optical Sensor Networks
Optical sensing that integrates communication and sensing functions is playing a more and more important role in both military and civil applications. Incorporating optical sensing and optical communication, optical sensor networks (OSNs) that undertake the task of high-speed and large-capacity applications and sensing data transmissions have become an important communication infrastructure. However, multiple failures and disasters in OSNs can cause a serious sensing provisioning problem. To ensure uninterrupted sensing data transmission, the survivability has always been an important research emphasis. This paper focuses on the survivable deployment of OSNs against multiple failures and disasters. It first reviews and evaluates the existing survivability technologies developed for or that can be applied in OSNs, such as fiber bus protection, self-healing architecture, 1 + 1 protection, etc. Then, the disaster-resilient survivability requirement of OSNs is elaborated. Moreover, a new concept of k-node (edge) sensing connectivity, which ensures the connectivity between sensing data and users is proposed. Based on k-node (edge) sensing connectivity, the disaster-resilient survivability technologies are developed. The key technologies of implementing k-node (edge) sensing connectivity are also elaborated. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) has obtained rapid development. It can be used to improve the survivability of OSNs. This paper also elaborates the potential development direction of survivability technologies of optical sensing in OSNs employing AI.
  • 638
  • 30 Oct 2020
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