Topic Review
Calendar of 13 Months
Has anyone of us missed an event because he was confused between days and dates? Do we really remember the date of any day if we do not have a calendar? Is the current Gregorian Calendar efficient enough for use, and does it really facilitate our life or make it more complicated?  Have you ever thought about a much simpler way to calculate days and dates in a year? All these questions are answered in this article, in which the author proposes an original calendar that might facilitate our lives if we can apply it.
  • 17418
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Gompertz Function with R
The Gompertz function is a sigmoid curve being a special case of a logistic curve. Although it was originally designed to describe mortality, it is now used in biology. For example, it is useful to describe many  phenomena such as the growth of a cancerous tumor confined to an organ without metastasis, the growth of the number of individuals in a population, e.g. prey in a Volterra-Lotka model, the germination of seeds, etc. It also models as the logistic function the growth of a colony of bacteria or in an epidemic the spread of the number of infected people. However, despite its many applications, in many cases the fitting of experimental data to the Gompertz function is not always straightforward. In this article we present a protocol that will be useful when performing the data regression to this curve using the statistical package R.
  • 7701
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Blockchain Oracle Problem
The Blockchain Oracle Problem refers to the inability of confirming the veracity of the data collected by oracles. Also, depending on the type, the chances of malfunction, and deliberate tampering. 
  • 4512
  • 11 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Bibliometric Analysis
Bibliometric analysis refers to the cross science of quantitative analysis of all knowledge carriers with mathematical and statistical methods. It is a comprehensive knowledge system that integrates mathematics, statistics, and Philology and pays attention to quantification. The main objects of bibliometrics are the amount of literature (various publications, especially journal papers and citations), the number of authors (individual group or group), the number of vocabulary (various literature marks, among which the majority are descriptors). The most essential feature of bibliometrics is that its output must be "quantity".
  • 3919
  • 27 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19
COVID-19 is pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus which is an emerging infectious disease, and outbreaks in more than 200 countries around the world. Consequently, the spread principles and prevention and control measures of COVID-19 have become a global problem to be solved. Here, we pose a series of dynamical models to reveal the transmission mechanisms of COVID-19. Based on these mathematical models, data fitting and spread trend of COVID-19 are explored to show the propagation law between human populations. We hope that our work may provide some useful insights for effective control of the COVID-19.
  • 3907
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms
In today’s data networks, the main protocol used to ensure reliable communications is the transmission control protocol (TCP). The TCP performance is largely determined by the used congestion control (CC) algorithm, which main purpose is to avoid the congestion of the network that can be caused by a large burst of data traffic. TCP CC algorithms have evolved over the past three decades and a large number of CC algorithm variations have been developed to accommodate various communication network environments. Considering the importance of CC in communication networks, the fundamentals of the TCP as the main transport layer protocol and CC process have been explained in detail. Also, an encyclopedic overview of the most popular single-flow and multi-flow TCP CC algorithms with corresponding alternatives has been present. Future directions in the possible improvement of CC algorithms for implementation in complex heterogeneous networks composed of wired and wireless elements are lastly discussed in this encyclopedic work. 
  • 3698
  • 21 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Mobile Technology in Tourism
The influence of mobile technology on tourism is very significant. With the support of mobile-related devices (smartphones, glasses, or other wearable devices), technology, data and services, multiple travel concepts, and travel modes including mobile tourism, smart tourism, e-tourism, and sustainable tourism have emerged or developed further. Mobile technology is touted as the next technology wave that can fundamentally change tourism and hotels. Moreover, mobile technology is playing an increasing role in the travel experience, and increasing travel research is concentrated in this field. Research findings show that, first, the research of mobile technology in tourism can be divided into three phases and to a certain extent is synchronized with the development of mobile technology. Second, in the area of social sciences, the research of mobile technology in tourism needs further exploration, which must refer to related research in the areas of Transportation and IT to expand the perspective of research. Top journal analysis, journal co-citation analysis, author co-citation analysis, and collaboration network analysis reveal the most representative journals, authors, institutions, and countries/regions in this research field. This finding provides a valuable reference for scholars in this field. Additionally, this research also grasped the hot and cutting-edge topics in this field through the analysis of keywords in this field. Finally, the clustering of co-citation references presents the knowledge base of mobile technology research in the tourism field: mobile technology, travel mode, mobile instrument, travel behavior research, mobile applications, and geo-based technology.
  • 3237
  • 28 Sep 2020
Topic Review
CCR Model (DEA)
The first Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (1978) under the assumption of a Constant Returns to Scale production technology, i.e.,  when an increase in the production resources results in a proportional increase in the output.
  • 3012
  • 30 May 2021
Topic Review
Free-Space Optical Communication
Fast communication is of high importance. Recently, increased data demand and crowded radio frequency spectrum have become crucial issues. Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) has diametrically changed the way people exchange information. As an alternative to wire communication systems, it allows efficient voice, video, and data transmission using a medium like air. Due to its large bandwidth, FSOC can be used in various applications and has therefore become an important part of our everyday life. The main advantages of FSOC are a high speed, cost savings, compact structures, low power, energy efficiency, a maximal transfer capacity, and applicability. The rapid development of the high-speed connection technology allows one to reduce the repair downtime and gives the ability to quickly establish a backup network in an emergency. Unfortunately, FSOC is susceptible to disruption due to atmospheric conditions or direct sunlight. Here, we briefly discuss Free-Space Optical Communication from mirrors and optical telegraphs to modern wireless systems and outline the future development directions of optical communication.
  • 1979
  • 11 Nov 2020
Topic Review
System Architecture for Autonomous Vehicles
Technology facilitates humans, improves productivity and leads to a better quality of life. Technological developments and automation in vehicular networks will lead to better road safety and lower congestion in present urban areas where the traditional transport system is becoming increasingly disorganised and inefficient. Therefore, the development of the intelligent transport systems (ITS) concept has been proposed, with the aim and focus on improving traffic safety and providing different services to its users. There has been considerable research in ITS resulting in significant contributions . 
  • 1850
  • 07 Apr 2021
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