Topic Review
System Architecture for Autonomous Vehicles
Technology facilitates humans, improves productivity and leads to a better quality of life. Technological developments and automation in vehicular networks will lead to better road safety and lower congestion in present urban areas where the traditional transport system is becoming increasingly disorganised and inefficient. Therefore, the development of the intelligent transport systems (ITS) concept has been proposed, with the aim and focus on improving traffic safety and providing different services to its users. There has been considerable research in ITS resulting in significant contributions . 
  • 16.4K
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Solaris (Operating System)
Solaris is a proprietary Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded the company's earlier SunOS in 1993. In 2010, after the Sun acquisition by Oracle, it was renamed Oracle Solaris. Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace, ZFS and Time Slider. Solaris supports SPARC and x86-64 workstations and servers from Oracle and other vendors. Solaris is registered as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification. Historically, Solaris was developed as proprietary software. In June 2005, Sun Microsystems released most of the codebase under the CDDL license, and founded the OpenSolaris open-source project. With OpenSolaris, Sun wanted to build a developer and user community around the software. After the acquisition of Sun Microsystems in January 2010, Oracle decided to discontinue the OpenSolaris distribution and the development model. In August 2010, Oracle discontinued providing public updates to the source code of the Solaris kernel, effectively turning Solaris 11 back into a closed source proprietary operating system. Following that, OpenSolaris was forked as illumos and is alive through several illumos distributions. In 2011, the Solaris 11 kernel source code leaked to BitTorrent. However, through the Oracle Technology Network (OTN), industry partners can still gain access to the in-development Solaris source code. Solaris is developed under a proprietary development model, and only the source for open-source components of Solaris 11 is available for download from Oracle.
  • 15.6K
  • 18 Oct 2022
Topic Review
CCR Model (DEA)
The first Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (1978) under the assumption of a Constant Returns to Scale production technology, i.e.,  when an increase in the production resources results in a proportional increase in the output.
  • 14.9K
  • 30 May 2021
Topic Review
In general terms, throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something is processed. When used in the context of communication networks, such as Ethernet or packet radio, throughput or network throughput is the rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel. The data these messages belong to may be delivered over a physical or logical link, or it can pass through a certain network node. Throughput is usually measured in bits per second (bit/s or bps), and sometimes in data packets per second (p/s or pps) or data packets per time slot. The system throughput or aggregate throughput is the sum of the data rates that are delivered to all terminals in a network. Throughput is essentially synonymous to digital bandwidth consumption; it can be analyzed mathematically by applying the queueing theory, where the load in packets per time unit is denoted as the arrival rate (λ), and the throughput, where the drop in packets per time unit, is denoted as the departure rate (μ). The throughput of a communication system may be affected by various factors, including the limitations of underlying analog physical medium, available processing power of the system components, and end-user behavior. When various protocol overheads are taken into account, useful rate of the transferred data can be significantly lower than the maximum achievable throughput; the useful part is usually referred to as goodput.
  • 13.5K
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Complement (Set Theory)
In set theory, the complement of a set A, often denoted by Ac (or A′), is the set of elements not in A. When all sets in the universe, i.e. all sets under consideration, are considered to be members of a given set U, the absolute complement of A is the set of elements in U that are not in A. The relative complement of A with respect to a set B, also termed the set difference of B and A, written [math]\displaystyle{ B \setminus A, }[/math] is the set of elements in B that are not in A.
  • 13.2K
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Bing (Search Engine)
Bing is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft. The service has its origins in Microsoft's previous search engines: MSN Search, Windows Live Search and later Live Search. Bing provides a variety of search services, including web, video, image and map search products. It is developed using ASP.NET. Bing, Microsoft's replacement for Live Search, was unveiled by Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer on May 28, 2009, at the All Things Digital conference in San Diego, California, for release on June 3, 2009. Notable new features at the time included the listing of search suggestions while queries are entered and a list of related searches (called "Explore pane") based on semantic technology from Powerset, which Microsoft had acquired in 2008. In July 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would power Yahoo! Search. All Yahoo! Search global customers and partners made the transition by early 2012. The deal was altered in 2015, meaning Yahoo! was only required to use Bing for a "majority" of searches. In October 2011, Microsoft stated that they were working on new back-end search infrastructure with the goal of delivering faster and slightly more relevant search results for users. Known as "Tiger", the new index-serving technology had been incorporated into Bing globally since August that year. In May 2012, Microsoft announced another redesign of its search engine that includes "Sidebar", a social feature that searches users' social networks for information relevant to the search query. (As of October 2018), Bing is the third largest search engine globally, with a query volume of 4.58%, behind Google (77%) and Baidu (14.45%). Yahoo! Search, which Bing largely powers, has 2.63%.
  • 12.0K
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Countries Blocking Access to The Pirate Bay
This is a list of countries where at least one internet service provider (ISP) formerly or currently censors the popular file sharing website The Pirate Bay (TPB).
  • 11.9K
  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Fifth Generation Computer
The Fifth Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), begun in 1982, to create computers using massively parallel computing and logic programming. It was to be the result of a government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence. There was also an unrelated Russian project also named as a fifth-generation computer (see Kronos (computer)). Ehud Shapiro, in his "Trip Report" paper (which focused the FGCS project on concurrent logic programming as the software foundation for the project), captured the rationale and motivations driving this project: The term "fifth generation" was intended to convey the system as being advanced. In the history of computing hardware, computers using vacuum tubes were called the first generation; transistors and diodes, the second; integrated circuits, the third; and those using microprocessors, the fourth. Whereas previous computer generations had focused on increasing the number of logic elements in a single CPU, the fifth generation, it was widely believed at the time, would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for added performance. The project was to create the computer over a ten-year period, after which it was considered ended and investment in a new "sixth generation" project would begin. Opinions about its outcome are divided: either it was a failure, or it was ahead of its time.
  • 10.9K
  • 21 Oct 2022
Topic Review
In mathematical analysis and in probability theory, a σ-algebra (also σ-field) on a set X is a collection Σ of subsets of X that includes the empty subset, is closed under complement, and is closed under countable unions and countable intersections. The pair (X, Σ) is called a measurable space or Borel space. A σ-algebra is a type of algebra of sets. An algebra of sets needs only to be closed under the union or intersection of finitely many subsets, which is a weaker condition. The main use of σ-algebras is in the definition of measures; specifically, the collection of those subsets for which a given measure is defined is necessarily a σ-algebra. This concept is important in mathematical analysis as the foundation for Lebesgue integration, and in probability theory, where it is interpreted as the collection of events which can be assigned probabilities. Also, in probability, σ-algebras are pivotal in the definition of conditional expectation. In statistics, (sub) σ-algebras are needed for the formal mathematical definition of a sufficient statistic, particularly when the statistic is a function or a random process and the notion of conditional density is not applicable. If X = {a, b, c, d}, one possible σ-algebra on X is Σ = { ∅, {a, b}, {c, d}, {a, b, c, d} }, where ∅ is the empty set. In general, a finite algebra is always a σ-algebra. If {A1, A2, A3, …} is a countable partition of X then the collection of all unions of sets in the partition (including the empty set) is a σ-algebra. A more useful example is the set of subsets of the real line formed by starting with all open intervals and adding in all countable unions, countable intersections, and relative complements and continuing this process (by transfinite iteration through all countable ordinals) until the relevant closure properties are achieved (a construction known as the Borel hierarchy).
  • 10.7K
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric methodology for measuring the efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMUs) using multiple inputs to outputs configurations. This is the most commonly used tool for frontier estimations in assessments of productivity and efficiency applied to all fields of economic activities.
  • 10.6K
  • 28 Jan 2022
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