Topic Review
Word Processor (Electronic Device)
A word processor is an electronic device (later a computer software application) for text, composing, editing, formatting, and printing. The word processor was a stand-alone office machine in the 1960s, combining the keyboard text-entry and printing functions of an electric typewriter with a recording unit, either tape or floppy disk (as used by the Wang machine) with a simple dedicated computer processor for the editing of text. Although features and designs varied among manufacturers and models, and new features were added as technology advanced, the first word processors typically featured a monochrome display and the ability to save documents on memory cards or diskettes. Later models introduced innovations such as spell-checking programs, and improved formatting options. As the more versatile combination of personal computers and printers became commonplace, and computer software applications for word processing became popular, most business machine companies stopped manufacturing dedicated word processor machines. As of 2009 there were only two U.S. companies, Classic and AlphaSmart, which still made them.[needs update] Many older machines, however, remain in use. Since 2009, Sentinel has offered a machine described as a "word processor", but it is more accurately a highly specialised microcomputer used for accounting and publishing. Word processing was one of the earliest applications for the personal computer in office productivity, and was the most widely used application on personal computers until the World Wide Web rose to prominence in the mid-1990s. Although the early word processors evolved to use tag-based markup for document formatting, most modern word processors take advantage of a graphical user interface providing some form of what-you-see-is-what-you-get ("WYSIWYG") editing. Most are powerful systems consisting of one or more programs that can produce a combination of images, graphics and text, the latter handled with type-setting capability. Typical features of a modern word processor include multiple font sets, spell checking, grammar checking, a built-in thesaurus, automatic text correction, web integration, HTML conversion, pre-formatted publication projects such as newsletters and to-do lists, and much more. Microsoft Word is the most widely used word processing software according to a user tracking system built into the software. Microsoft estimates that roughly half a billion people use the Microsoft Office suite, which includes Word. Many other word processing applications exist, including WordPerfect (which dominated the market from the mid-1980s to early-1990s on computers running Microsoft's MS-DOS operating system, and still (2014) is favored for legal applications), Apple's Pages application, and open source applications such as Writer, LibreOffice Writer, AbiWord, KWord, and LyX. Web-based word processors such as Office Online or Google Docs are a relatively new category.
  • 3.6K
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Word Lists by Frequency
Word lists by frequency are lists of a language's words grouped by frequency of occurrence within some given text corpus, either by levels or as a ranked list, serving the purpose of vocabulary acquisition. A word list by frequency "provides a rational basis for making sure that learners get the best return for their vocabulary learning effort" (Nation 1997), but is mainly intended for course writers, not directly for learners. Frequency lists are also made for lexicographical purposes, serving as a sort of checklist to ensure that common words are not left out. Some major pitfalls are the corpus content, the corpus register, and the definition of "word". While word counting is a thousand years old, with still gigantic analysis done by hand in the mid-20th century, natural language electronic processing of large corpora such as movie subtitles (SUBTLEX megastudy) has accelerated the research field. In computational linguistics, a frequency list is a sorted list of words (word types) together with their frequency, where frequency here usually means the number of occurrences in a given corpus, from which the rank can be derived as the position in the list.
  • 2.9K
  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Women’s Contribution in Computer Science
The presence of women in teams seem to increase collective intelligence, and if those women have decision making positions, success probabilities increase in startups. When women are not involved in designing products and addressing social and political problems, then needs and desires unique to women may be overlooked. 
  • 477
  • 30 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Wolfram Alpha
Wolfram Alpha (also styled WolframAlpha, and Wolfram|Alpha) is a computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Alpha LLC, a subsidiary of Wolfram Research. It is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from externally sourced "curated data", rather than providing a list of documents or web pages that might contain the answer as a search engine might. Wolfram Alpha, which was released on May 18, 2009, is based on Wolfram's earlier flagship product Wolfram Mathematica, a computational platform or toolkit that encompasses computer algebra, symbolic and numerical computation, visualization, and statistics capabilities. Additional data is gathered from both academic and commercial websites such as the CIA's The World Factbook, the United States Geological Survey, a Cornell University Library publication called All About Birds, Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Dow Jones, the Catalogue of Life, CrunchBase, Best Buy, the FAA and optionally a user's Facebook account.
  • 1.0K
  • 02 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Wireless Technologies for Social Distancing in COVID-19 Pandemic
So-called “social distance” refers to measures that work to prevent disease spread through minimizing human physical contact frequency and intensity, including the closure of public spaces (e.g., schools and offices), avoiding large crowds, and maintaining a safe distance between individuals. Because it reduces the likelihood that an infected person would transmit the illness to a healthy individual, social distance reduces the disease’s progression and impact. During the early stages of a pandemic, social distancing techniques can play a crucial role in decreasing the infection rate and delaying the disease’s peak. Consequently, the load on healthcare systems is reduced, and death rates are reduced. The concept of social distancing may not be as easy as physical distancing, given the rising complexity of viruses and the fast expansion of social interaction and globalization. It encompasses numerous non-pharmaceutical activities or efforts designed to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, including monitoring, detection, and alerting people. Different technologies can assist in maintaining a safe distance (e.g., 1.5 m) between persons in the adopted scenarios. There are a number of wireless and similar technologies that can be used to monitor people and public locations in real-time.
  • 805
  • 25 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Wireless Sensors for Brain Activity
Over the last decade, the area of electroencephalography (EEG) witnessed a progressive move from high-end large measurement devices, relying on accurate construction and providing high sensitivity, to miniature hardware, more specifically wireless wearable EEG devices. While accurate, traditional EEG systems need a complex structure and long periods of application time, unwittingly causing discomfort and distress on the users. Given their size and price, aside from their lower sensitivity and narrower spectrum band(s), wearable EEG devices may be used regularly by individuals for continuous collection of user data from non-medical environments. This allows their usage for diverse, nontraditional, non-medical applications, including cognition, BCI, education, and gaming. Given the reduced need for standardization or accuracy, the area remains a rather incipient one, mostly driven by the emergence of new devices that represent the critical link of the innovation chain.
  • 879
  • 26 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Wireless Sensor System
With the generation of tremendous data, humans are experiencing a rapid development period. The large amount of data is produced from billions of wireless sensor nodes. A wireless sensor node is a sensing device capable of signal processing and data communication. A collection of those sensor nodes in a particular combination forms a wireless sensor network (WSN). Each wireless sensor node typically performs three main functions—sensing, processing, transceiving data, along with optionally issuing commands to actuators.
  • 1.3K
  • 18 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink
With the advances in sensing technologies, sensor networks became the core of several different networks, including the Internet of Things (IoT) and drone networks. This led to the use of sensor networks in many critical applications including military, health care, and commercial applications.
  • 505
  • 05 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Wireless Sensor Networks based IoT
The WSN based IoT (WSN-IoT) design problems include network coverage and connectivity issues, energy consumption, bandwidth requirement, network lifetime maximization, communication protocols and state of the art infrastructure. In this paper, the authors propose machine learning methods as an optimization tool for regular WSN-IoT nodes deployed in smart city applications. 
  • 1.3K
  • 26 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Wireless Sensor Networks Architecture
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have taken a giant leap in scale, expanding their applicability to a large variety of technological domains and applications, ranging from the Internet of things (IoT) for smart cities and smart homes to wearable technology healthcare applications, underwater, agricultural and environmental monitoring and many more. This expansion is rapidly growing every passing day in terms of the variety, heterogeneity and the number of devices which such applications support. Data collection is commonly the core application in WSN and IoT networks, which are typically composed of a large variety of devices, some constrained by their resources (e.g., processing, storage, energy) and some by highly diverse demands. Many challenges span all the conceptual communication layers, from the Physical to the Applicational. In addition, the integrated unit architecture and the platform design can be subject to various stringent constraints. For example, size requirements can impose a strict constraint on the device design; low power consumption, low production cost, and self-operation can represent additional constraints.  Accordingly, the device architecture is fundamental and affects many other factors in the system. For example, power supply affects the life span; it also affects transmission range, memory, and processing unit, which in turn can affect the algorithms that can be executed on the device, etc.
  • 2.4K
  • 12 Apr 2022
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